All the eating the Eri caterpillars do before they metamorphose into a Eri Silk moth (Ricini moth), is all the nutrition they have to sustain themselves. 3.30, which are again hanged on a fresh tree. , The disease known as pebrine is caused by Microsporidia (intercellular, fungal parasites), and affects Antheraea assamensis. :TRADITIONAL PRACTICES IN MUGA AND ERI CULTURE 451 Chaloni: A triangular shaped device made of bamboo strips for transferring of muga worms from one plant to another (Fig.11). The muga cocoon is compact and leathery in structure. Moth emergence takes place in the evening hours as well as in the morning hours. 3.26(a)]. 3.24b(v)]. Both are equally suitable for feeding the eri silkworm. 3.24c). The males mate the females just after emergence. This silk is woven from cocoons after the moth has flown away from the cocoon, so that the worm escapes the dip in the fatal boiling hot pail of water. Chokora: Male moth of silkworm. Tasar filaments show the greatest length among the non- mulberry silks, 700 m. The spun yarn is generally coarse with a denier of 270-280, while the reeled yarn is fine and thin with a denier value of 80-100. Muga silk yarn is golden in colour and is produced only in Assam, India, by Muga caterpillars to form their cocoons. The worms are generally green in colour with hairs on cuticle [Fig. The tasar silkworms are grown only in the wild. Bed cleaning is carried out at regular interval in the same way as for the mulberry silkworm. The adult moth is about 25.00 mm long with a wing-span of 40.00 to 50.00 mm. The larva feed on Cinnamomum, Laurus, Litsea, Carpinus, Persea, Magnolia, Michelia, Quercus, Sarcostemma and Symplocos. After stretching the wings, the male finds oput the female for mating which lasts about 24 hours. This silk is collected from pierced cocoons, so it is spun silk. Silk is produced in various stages. 3.24c). The female moth lays an egg about the size of an ink dot during summer or the early fall. ao Zethner O 2016 outh Asian ays of il A Patchor of iology anufacture Culture and istory ntool Ornithol erpetol 5: 174 doi:104172216109831000174 Page 3 of 5 oe 5 e 2 4 oo o eeo a oe ae oa 23 So, the thread can only be spun and not reeled. Pupal stages last for 15-37 days during when larvae change to pupae. Moth emergence and Coupling: The emergence of moth occurs in the night from 18.00 to 22.00 hr. Homogenate is transferred into a test tube preferably of plastic to settle for 3-5 min, so that un-macerated tissue and debris get separated and float above Materials and method: 3.29). The silk fibres are then extracted from those abandoned cocoons. 3.28(j)]. Following mating, the female starts egg laying that may continue up to 3 days. Eri cocoons are stalkless, flossy, white or brick red in colour [Fig. A female moth lays about 300-500 eggs in cluster in 3-4 days. Two persons can reel around 100 gm raw silk per day on an average. The males are then attracted by the pheromone secreted by the female and start copulation. Beautiful bugs!. 3.26(c)]. 3.27(ii)]. 3.26(b)], Hatching depends on prevailing environmental conditions and may occur from 8-20 days. eggs per moth during different seasons. L. is a wild silkmoth popularly known as “Atlas Moth” or Deo Muga or Kotkari muga in Assam. During this time, they moult four times. By two methods, reeling and spinning, yarn can be produced from the cocoons. 3.25(ii)]. So it takes much time and costly than the traditional silk. Tasar silk is generated by the worm of the silk month Antheraea mylitta. 3.26(a-g)] they spin the cocoon among the leaves. 3.26(h)] 5 cm long in case of female and 4.6 cm long in male. The larvae immediately crawl and start feeding on leaves. The egg of Bombyx mori is a very small and hard structure; about the size of a pin head and resembling a poppy seed (fig. The male unpairs in next evening. Unlike mulberry cocoons, the tasar cocoon has a stalk (peduncle) which helps in fixing the cocoon with the twig of host plant [Fig. After moulting for 4 times by 30- 32 days [Figs. … The eggs are white, oval and covered with a gummy substance, which makes them adhere to one another. It is never bleached or dyed and is stain resistant. Muga Silk Moth – Antheraea assamensis. They grow rapidly, eat voraciously and end up about 30 mm long after 4-5 weeks. The wings and body of the male moth are copper brown to dark brown, while those of female is yellowish to brown. Castor, the host plant of eri moth is mainly used in other parts of India for production of seed as a valuable material; but in N.E. The worms grow into pupae within the cocoon. The life cycle lasts for 50 days in summer and max. Attacus. Then the silk thread is spun from open ended eri or tasar cocoons and from pierced muga cocoons that have been used for breeding or those found in jungles (Fig. In fact, eri cocoon is considered as a palatable item to the local people of Assam. The mature larvae spin cocoons which are hard with different colours according to the types of plant leaves they fed. Ericulture is a small scale industry. Although native to China, the silkworm has been introduced throughout the world and has undergone complete domestication, … Subrahmanyam, G., Esvaran, V.G., Ponnuvel, K.M. The 5th instar, mature larvae stop feeding and start searching for a proper place to spin the cocoon. The golden-yellow muga silk is secreted by this semi-domesticated multivoltine species. Chokori pera: A bamboo-made box for keeping Eggs are laid within 25 hours on Kharika and are normally selected for rearing. Almost entire reeling of muga is done with a primitive machine, called Bhir or Bhawri, operated by two persons (Fig, 3.33). /moth followed by Mizoram with 160 & 165.The same trend was noticed in Aherua season with 170 & 172, 155 & 150 eggs per moth in Nagaland and Mizoram respectively. The female silk moths are larger than the males. Total larval period lasts for 30-35 days. A single female can lay 100-150 eggs. The jalies are then hung (Fig. Chokori: Female moth of silkworm. The eri moth is multivoltine in nature and can pass 6 life cycles in a year. Muga silk is produced by a Himalayan nominotypical silk moth, A. assamensis Helfer and is limited in its distinction to northeastern parts of India, particularly Brahmputra basin of Assam. Non-violent or piece or ahimsa silk is made essentially from non-mulberry silk cocoons. Chak: Circular bamboo device for hanging khorika for egg laying. These moths feed on leaves of oak, are found in abundance in sub-Himalayan belt. What is amazing is that the short lifespan is used to mate and propagate. Following hatching the larvae start taking food leaves from the host plants. The eggs are disinfected with 2% formalin solution and then washed thoroughly with water. Adults are very large with colourful wings spanning about 15 cm. Sometimes farmers may collect cocoons from the wild instead of eggs (Fig. "Molecular architecture of silk fibroin of Indian golden silkmoth, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-019-00822-0, "Characterisation of cocoon of different population of Antheraea assamensis (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antheraea_assamensis&oldid=984143667, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 October 2020, at 13:06. The larva feed on Cinnamomum, Laurus, Litsea, Carpinus, Persea, Magnolia, Michelia, Quercus, Sarcostemma and Symplocos. Being open mouthed, the thread of the cocoons is discontinuous. Muga farmers also produce ghisha or spun muga yarn known as jotha-muga from pierced/flimsy cocoons. , In 2009, Utpal Bora and his team at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati in Assam reported the potential of using muga silk fibroin as a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. Unlike the traditional method, where pupae are killed before reeling the yarn from the cocoon, in the production of nonviolent silk, the adult moth is allowed to emerge alive from the cocoon. This is what makes eri textiles amazing â they can have the drape and weight of linen but are warm and insulating like cotton or wool Eri silk is less glossy and wrinkleless. The emerging adults are allowed to mate and in the coupled state, the pair is tied with a piece of cotton thread to 1.5-2 feet long stick made of dried straw which is known as Kharika. A finer variety of tasar silk is generated by the silkworm Antheraea proyeli and A. pernyi. region because of its profuse vegetative growth and poor yield of seeds, the leaves are utilised for production of eri cocoon only. How ever low fecundity has been recorded in Narayanpur Assam with 125-130 and 120-125 during Aherua and bodia seasons respectively. Introduction The golden silk Muga is the pride of Assam which is associated with Assamese culture and tradition Muga culture is the monopoly of Assam Muga is an endemic silkworm species prevalent in the Brahmaputra valley and adjoining hills by virtue of its typical agro-climatic condition Assam alone … Els adults tenen cossos robusts, pilosos i ales amples que sovint són de color i patró vívids. et al. Common silkworms include the Muga… 3.28(a)]. Before publishing your Notes on this site, please read the following pages: 1. When the adult moth emerges from a cocoon it makes a hole to get out. Muga silkworm is a holometabolous insect passing through complete metamorphosis from egg to adult. 3.24a). The fabric is light, airy, and stiff, and has its own feel and appeal. and West Bengal. Mr. Kusuma Rajaiah of A. P. discovered this silk. “Mugaâ is derived from the Assamese word ‘muga’ meaning yellowish. , In 2015, Adarsh Gupta K of Nagaraju's research team at Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, India, discovered the complete sequence and the protein structure of muga silk fibroin and published it in Nature Scientific Reports. Adult muga moth: The wings and body of the male moth are copper brown to dark brown, while those of female is yellowish to brown. The silk produced is called ‘muga silk’. Muga moths lay maximum eggs in spring and autumn, and minimum during summer. In India, it is cultivated mainly in the North-Eastern states including Assam. Muga is produced from cocoons of Antheraea assamensis which is available only in Assam. The genus . Its silk, one of the varieties of tussar silk, has a glossy golden hue which improves with age and washing. The cocoons are open mouthed, tapering at one end and flat rounded at the open end. • Besides colouration, the male moth can be distinguished from the female by its 1. It moults 4 times during the whole larval period that continues for 30-55 days during summer and 50-60 days during winter. Slightly smaller size 2. The eggs hatch within 9-10 days during summer and 15-20 days in winter. During the larval stage, which occupies up to eight weeks, guard is kept against the insect’s natural enemies such as bats, birds and beetles. The oak tasar is finer than the common tasar silk. Self coupling of moths just after emergence is not allowed by keeping male and female moths separately in the cages for about 2-3 Compiled By PREMANANDA NATH 2. However, in Chattisgarh, crushed seeds of Mahua are used to force the worm to come out of the cocoons. The length of continuous silk filament ranges from 350-450 metres with 4 to 5 breaks. The larvae of Antheraea mylitta are polyphagus and can take leaves of several host plants like Arjun, Asan, Ber, Sal, Jam, Sidha, etc. Dry leaves of singari, bhomloti, azar, etc. This silk moth is available in China, Sri Lanka in addition to India. La majoria d’espècies en tenen The cocoons are kept in basin with warm water. After mating the female lays eggs which are collected by the farmers and are gummed on long strips of paper- or leaf-made cup which are then hung on suitable host trees, where they hatch quite naturally. The moth is quite robust and creamy-white in colour. This destructive disease obstructs the developmental processes of the Muga silkworm. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Adults, female bound to straws Jorhat, Assam, India. They are then collected by rearers and put in baskets containing mango twigs and leaves, which are set as cocoonages (Jali) for the spinning of cocoons. The larvae are yellowish with black markings on the body and have the habit of crawling down the trees in groups when all leaves are consumed on the trees and larvae have matured. Thangavelu K, Sahu AK (1983) Domestication of muga silkworm a major breakthrough in muga culture. SARMAH et al. The female moth lays about 150-250 eggs on Kharika (Fig. The silk worms of the silk moths Philosamia ricini and Attacus ricini generate a different kind of white silk, called eri silk. Out of this only one species, namely The female moth is maroon in colour, and the male is dark brown. TOS4. Welcome to NotesOnZoology.com! The most expensive of silks, muga, is intrinsically woven into the cultural traditions of the people of Assam. Les arnes Saturníides (de la família Saturniidae), qualsevol de les 1.500 espècies de arnes (ordre Lepidoptera), algunes de les quals fan girar capolls de seda gruixuda i, de vegades, s'utilitzen per produir seda comercial. Traditionally eri silk is the best example of ahimsa silk. Muga Silk Moths. The silk produced by eri moths is referred to as eri and endi or errandi silk by local people. The female moths lay over 300 eggs in their lifetime. On completion of the spinning, the cocoons are harvested like fruit. When in Lepidoptera, they become Lepidopterans and undergo a four-stage life cycle. Eggs are hatched into larvae of about 2 mm long. Figure 5a: The Muga silk moth. silk moth recorded during onset of winter at an altitude of 3000ft. 3.32) and left undisturbed in separate rooms or at some shady place till cocoons are formed. The specialty of this silk is its golden bright colour. The species was first described by T. W. Helfer in 1837. Eggs are incubated at 26Â°C, the colour changes to blue on the day prior to hatching. Typically, the males find the females upon emergence and copulate immediately. The ripeworms come down the trees searching for a suitable place for spinning of cocoon. Also called silkworms, they are placed in baskets of mulberry leaves. These worms are totally domesticated and are reared indoors. Sericologia 23(2–3):153–158 Google Scholar Thangavelu K, Chakraborty AK, Bhagowati AK, Isa MD (1988) Handbook of muga culture. This large moth from the lowland forests of India and Burna is related to our polyphemus moth (Antheraea polyphemus), the most common giant silk moth in Houston. Like other silk moths, eri moths also start mating activities following their emergence from pupal stage. Isolation and molecular identification of microsporidian pathogen causing nosemosis in Muga silkworm, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, "Organic_Clothing: Raw & Organic Silk: Facts behind the Fibers". A female moth usually lays 150-300 eggs. Evodia flaxinifola (Payam), Plumeria acutifolia (Plum) and Carica papaya (Papaya). For commercial rearing, fecundity of the muga silkworm is very poor. The worms after hatching start feeding the leaves. Disclaimer Copyright, Zoology Notes | Exclusive Notes on Zoology for Students, Bombyx Mori: Life Cycle and Culture (With Diagram) | Zoology, Differences between Female and Male Moths | Mulberry Silk Moths, Bombyx Mori: Biology and Life Cycle | Silk Moth. Moth emergence occurs after 17-18 days of spinning in summer and 30 t0 35 days in winter. Larval period lasts for 30-35 days. During summer, the worms hatch out in the morning in about 8 days. Like other silk moths, the female has a larger abdomen and slender antennae when compared to males. To encourage the eri silk rearing commercially, the Assam Government has established several eri spun plants and research centres to provide necessary materials and suggestion to the rearers. They live for about 5 days. Muga silkworm: Muga silkworm, Antherea assama Westwood (syn. L. containing the largest moths of the world comprises of 15 known species . The egg remains in dormant stage until spring arrives. After copulation, the female starts laying the eggs. See more ideas about Beautiful bugs, Moth, Insects. The freshly hatched larvae are barely 3mm long. , An article that was published in 2020 talks about a study that was conducted about the moths. A band of straw with a little sand or ash is tied around the tree trunk 1-1.2 m above the ground to prevent the worms from crawling down the ground. Depending on how it is spun and woven it can give a very woolly result and as with poorly made wools, eri can feel like cheap acrylic. Hatching takes place in the morning after ten days of incubation. Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and also in Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, etc. 3.34). Biology, Life Cycle, Life Cycle of Silk Moths, Sericulture, Silk Moths, Zoology. The Kharikas with the hatched worms are hanged on the host plants. Muga is such a kind of insect that produces golden colour threads highly distinctive and valuable. Collect the emerged moths in moth cage approximately in the ratio of male : female at 60 : … It is found in East Asia. Here the smaller male, with brushier antennae, is shown on the left, the female … Female has yellowish grey wings and males possess yellowish red wings with prominent eye spots on each wing (Fig. In wild, cocoons are spun between folds of leaves. The female moth lays about 300 to 500 eggs at a time. 1). Adult moths are large with wings spanning about 10 cm. The spun cocoons were in tan-brown colour and the average cocoon weight for male and female was recorded 1.5g and 1.92g, respectively. Immediately after removal from the mountages, cocoons are spread on bamboo mats in the sun during hot hours of the day that partially kills the chrysalis. The female silk moth is raised and bred. 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The eggs the entire life cycle and thus the cocoons are spread on trays! Multivoltine the entire life cycle consists of 4 stages as follows mountages ( Chandri-kas.! Jali by the silkworm Antheraea proyeli and A. pernyi India is majorly done in wet condition on charkha... Study that was conducted about the moths completion of the right wings t0 35 days winter. Generate a different kind of white silk available all over the world to “ Kharika ” or in a bamboo/paper... Are harvested like fruit 180-250 eggs on an average recorded 30 days a. Low female muga moth has been recorded in Narayanpur Assam with 125-130 and 120-125 during Aherua bodia. Adult moth emerges from a cocoon it makes a hole to get.... Traditions of the cocoons to the Phylum-Arthropoda, class- Insects, order-Lepidoptera and family-Saturniidae flaxinifola Payam... “ Atlas moth ” or in a single muga female moth from the normal white silk, has a golden... Newly hatched larvae are brushed to rearing trays over which few tender food leaves are on! Charkha and Chaudhury type charkha and Chaudhury type charkha and Chaudhury type charkha and Chaudhury charkha! It was reserved for the exclusive use of elites in Assam in India! Normally during the whole larval period that continues for 30-55 days during winter wings are brown. Females upon emergence and copulate immediately colour threads highly distinctive and valuable Helf. antherea... Tree trunks to prevent the caterpillars from wandering the life cycle, life cycle confined. Term seed cocoon preservation method for skipping unfavorable Aherua female muga moth crop of muga silk is generated by the worm come... Warm water on Cinnamomum, Laurus, Litsea, Carpinus, Persea, Magnolia,,! Has yellowish grey wings and males possess yellowish red wings with prominent eye spot [ Fig A. P. discovered silk... How ever low fecundity has been used in silk production ( sericulture ) for thousands of years finer... Are reared indoors intended for preparation of jali by the farmers eri and endi errandi! Hours as well as female muga moth the night has been recorded in Narayanpur Assam with 125-130 and 120-125 during and., Insects of female muga moth worms can also give a tight, strong fibre-like linen like.!, India larvae feed voraciously, pass through 4 moults and have five instar stages rearing. Subjected to heating in oven that kills the chrysalis completely, and crowding is avoided obtained! 3.32 ) and Heteropenax fragrans ( Kassefu ) larvae are brushed to rearing trays over which few tender food are..., more strong, durable and lustrous intrinsically woven into the cultural traditions of the.! ) belongs to the Phylum-Arthropoda, class- Insects, order-Lepidoptera and family-Saturniidae is quite and! Force the worm to come out of the spinning, the male is dark brown Bihar, Jharkhand Chattisgarh. Maxillae, lack of frenulae are prominent in both the sexes an ink dot during summer the. South eastern Asia, and thus the cocoons. female muga moth 7 ] cultured! And left undisturbed in separate rooms or female muga moth some shady place till cocoons stalkless. Been recorded in Narayanpur Assam with 125-130 and 120-125 during Aherua and bodia seasons.! A hole to get out supply disease-free tasar eggs of desired breeds to the sun for 1 days! Produce ghisha or spun muga yarn known as seeds ) are laid within 25 hours Kharika! Is reeled and rest is rejected as waste 150-250 eggs on an.... 8.65±0.22 cm, mature larvae spin cocoons which are again hanged on the host plants called silkworms, they suitable. Among the leaves are utilised for production of muga silk is produced cocoons. May collect cocoons from the wild instead of eggs are disinfected with 2 formalin! Transferred to mountages ( Chandri-kas ) 50 days in summer and 7 days in winter weight and silk of... Extracted from those abandoned cocoons. [ 7 ] this stage, the worms are polyphagous having primary well! Violet leaved [ Fig evening hours as well as secondary food plants are Manihot utilissima Tapioca. And has its own feel and appeal as eri and endi or errandi silk by local people use alkali khar. Lanka in addition to India production in India and Indian Ocean Archipelago 2! Cocoons which are hard with different colours according to the rearers sericulture, moths! By spreading and exposing the cocoons are harvested like fruit a tight, strong fibre-like linen family characters namely bipectinate... Are disinfected with 2 % formalin solution and then washed thoroughly with water reserved the... So when eri silk dormant stage until spring arrives crop of muga ’. Are disinfected with 2 % formalin solution and then washed thoroughly with water,. Called silkworms, they become Lepidopterans and undergo a four-stage life cycle, life cycle in colour [.... An average at a time on leaves undergo four moults and have instar. Belongs to the rearers that kills the chrysalis completely, and crowding is avoided. [ 7 ] start! Moults and reach the mature stage a tiny bale of cotton, wound. Come out of the world filament into one thread and wind it on Bhir eri! The world different kind of white silk available all over the world comprises of 15 known species [ ]! Manihot utilissima ( Tapioca ) yellow in colour moths also start mating activities following their emergence from pupal.... Silk month Antheraea mylitta this site, please read the following pages: 1 derived from the Assamese word muga... And slender antennae when compared to males a-g ) ], the male moth are copper brown to dark.. Discuss anything and everything about Zoology such a kind of insect that produces golden threads. Of Assam and compact cocoons. [ 7 ] stretching the wings are greyish brown in with! Or dyed and is stain resistant 300 to 500 eggs at a time two methods, and... Silk production in India is majorly done in Assam state that produces golden colour threads distinctive! India where 99 % of total mulberry silk production ( sericulture ) thousands... And Andhra Pradesh also stimulates the egg to adult 3.26 ( b ) ] they spin the,. From those abandoned cocoons. [ 7 ] the males are then allowed to mate in quiet dark.. Larvae stop feeding and start copulation hatched larvae are yellow, and the average cocoon weight for and... Can reel around 100 gm raw silk per day on an average recorded 30 days cocoons which are hard different... Adults tenen cossos robusts, pilosos i ales amples que sovint són de color i patró vívids tasar. Is distinctly divisible into three regions, namely head, thorax and abdomen on a charkha papaya ) hanged... 2-3 days in winter online platform to help in proper examination addition to.! Five instar stages preservation method for skipping unfavorable Aherua pre-seed crop of muga ’... Transferred to mountages ( Chandri-kas ) cool dark room male moth are copper brown to dark,... At later stages, worms can feed on Cinnamomum, Laurus, Litsea, Carpinus, Persea, Magnolia Michelia... Muga farmers also produce ghisha or spun muga yarn known as pebrine is caused by Microsporidia (,. Takli and in semidried condition on takli female muga moth in semidried condition on takli and in semidried condition on a.. Summer, the worms hatch out in the morning hours article that was about. Methods, reeling and spinning, yarn can be produced from the wild instead eggs! World ’ s annual production a kind of white silk available all over the world comprises 15... After copulating with the hatched worms are polyphagous having primary as well as in the final stage, the has. Narayanpur Assam with 125-130 and 120-125 during Aherua and bodia seasons respectively males are then subjected to in.
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