Quite a lot will carry on going south west. With both a webbed and a hypotrophied hallux being apomorphic and paraphyletic, its absence in pseudotooth birds does not provide much information on their relationship. They offer unusual identification challenges—many species look similar and it can be difficult to get good views of fast-flying birds from a moving boat. Morocco, Essaouira - 2ARNW7J from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. The incidental capture of vulnerable species in fishing gear (also known generically as ‘bycatch') is a key threat in the Mediterranean Sea for several taxonomic groups, including sea turtles, seabirds, marine mammals, cartilaginous fishes as well as corals and sponges. The genera in question are Laornis, Proceriavis, Manu and Protopelicanus. (Photo by Karim SAHIB / AFP) (Photo by Karim SAHIB / AFP) A Tigray woman who fled the conflict in Ethiopia's Tigray region, carries water on her back, at Umm Rakouba refugee camp in Qadarif, eastern Sudan, Friday, Nov. 27, 2020. The latter name is generally found in mid-20th-century literature however. Here we will look for Black Wheatear, Blue Rock Thush, Trumpeter Finch, Moussier’s Redstart, Barbary Partridge, Desert Lark, Eurasian Hoopoe and Tristam’s & Spectacled Warbler. 594 pages, 32 col photos . 55–59), Olson (1985: pp.195–199), Mlíkovský (2002: pp. Western Olivaceous Warbler, Black-crowned Tchagra, Purple Heron, Little Bittern, Western Swamphen, Great Reed Warbler, Moustached Warbler, Brown-throated Martin, Moussier’s Redstart, Marbled Teal and Eurasian Spoonbill can be seen. It had been found a few months earlier in Ocucaje District of Ica Province, Peru. The Massa lagoon, situated an hours drive south of Agadir, is normally counted as Morocco's best bird reserve. Blessed with the richest birdlife in northwest Africa, the country deservedly ranks as one of the Western Palearctic's truly great birding destinations. NEXT DEPARTURE DATE: 9 April 2021 While looking for all of these birds we will also scan for migratory passerines. The Medina of Essaouira is a UNESCO World Heritage listed city, an example of a late 18th-century fortified town, as transferred to North Africa by European colonists. [7], The legs were proportionally short, the feet probably webbed and the hallux was vestigial or entirely absent; the tarsometatarsi (anklebones) resembled those of albatrosses while the arrangement of the front toes was more like in fulmars. The Sous region is the alluvial basin of the Sous River, separated from the Sahara desert by the Anti-Atlas Mountains. On our last afternoon we will transfer to Boulmane du Dades for a 2-night stay. DAY 11: Today, the European Court of Auditors released a new report explaining why the state of nature at sea has not benefited from what EU legislation has set out. Mortality hotspots for birds of prey in Morocco revealed by first study on conservation status . Morocco's coastline stretches along both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. (eds. If they did, it was probably red or orange, and may have been used in mating displays. 86–87, Hopson (1964), Olson (1985: p. 142), Bourdon (2005), Mayr (2009: p. 58), Mayr, Olson (1985: pp. Secondly, pinnipeds are limited to near-shore waters while pseudotooth birds roamed the seas far and wide, like large cetaceans, and like all big carnivores all three groups were K-strategists with moderate to very low population densities. The phylogenetic uncertainties surrounding them do not allow to infer whether the bony-toothed birds had a throat sac similar to pelicans. It is conspicuous that penguins and plotopterids – both wing-propelled divers that foraged over the continental shelf – are almost invariably found in the company of pseudotooth birds. DAY 8,9&10: By: Michael Thévenot, Rae Vernon and Patrick Bergier. Essaouira is also renowned for its kitesurfing and windsurfing, with the powerful trade wind blowing almost constantly onto the protected, almost waveless, bay. On the way, we will do some stops since the area is good for raptors including Short-toed Snake, Booted & Bonelli’s Eagle and Black-winged Kite. In the former case, however, a "much the more convincing"[32] analysis for a placement outside the Galloanseres was published the year after its description already. We will move onto Agadir for a 3 nights stay, where we will arrive in the late afternoon. The carpometacarpus of both Anseriformes and pseudotooth birds has a prominent pisiform process, which extends from the carpal trochlea far fingerwards along the bone's forward side. ITINERARY – MOROCCO BIRDING TOUR The Ouarzazate area is a noted film-making location, with Morocco’s biggest studios inviting many international companies to work here. The bony-toothed birds' attachment of the coronoideal part of the external mandible adductor muscles was located at the midline, the rostropterygoid process had a support at its base and the mesethmoid bone had a deep depression for the caudal concha, just as in waterfowl. He was a major force in the recent designation of the Ross Sea Marine Protected Area (see the award-winning film, The Last Ocean). Temminck’s Lark, Pin-tailed & Black-bellied Sandgrouse - Tagdilt Track - Birds of Morocco - Duration: 3:56. Panoramic View Of The Lake Of Merzouga Morocco, Birds On The Lake And Wild Camels Walk On Horizon. This is a good place to look for shags and sea birds (March-April). The undescribed species provisionally called "Odontoptila inexpectata"[5] – from the Paleocene-Eocene boundary of Morocco – is the smallest pseudotooth bird discovered to date and was just a bit larger than a white-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis). These are not part of the "higher waterbirds" but of the Galloanserae, a basal lineage of neognath birds. indet. The creature lived in the era known as the Late Cretaceous period, which was 100-66 million years ago. Morocco's Coastline. Part 1 (Archaeopterygiformes through Ardeiformes)", "Catalogue of Fossil Birds: Part 3 (Ralliformes, Ichthyornithiformes, Charadriiformes)", "The late Pliocene locality of Ahl al Oughlam, Morocco: vertebrate fauna and interpretation", 10.1671/0272-4634(2002)022[0722:EPBROT]2.0.CO;2, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Notes on the phylogeny of the Pelecaniformes", "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. The first comprehensive overview of Maine’s incredibly rich birdlife in more than seven decades, Birds of Maine is a detailed account of all 464 species recorded in the Pine Tree State. In that respect, it is conspicuous that the older pseudotooth birds are typically found in the same deposits as plotopterids and penguins, while younger forms were sympatric with auks, albatrosses, penguins and Procellariidae – which, however, underwent an adaptive radiation of considerable extent coincident (and probably caused by) with the final demise of the Paleogene-type trophic web. [26], In 2005, a cladistic analysis proposed a close relationship between pseudotooth birds and waterfowl (Anseriformes). May – Pantanal Tamri and transfer to Marrakesh We will again do some morning birding in and around Marrakesh, where we can enjoy some of the common birds living around the city. Officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, Morocco is a nation that lies in the northwestern region of the African continent. It has the fifth largest economy in Africa. However, the presently used name Pelagornithidae pre-dates Pseudodontornithidae, and thus modern authors generally prefer "pelagornithids" over "pseudodontorns". In addition, the Galloanserae are not recovered as monophyletic. African Journal of Marine Science: Vol. Thus, the only colours commonly found in these birds are black, white and various shades of grey. As regards the Ypresian London Clay of the Isle of Sheppey, wherein pelagornithid fossils are not infrequently found, it was deposited in a shallow epicontinental sea during a very hot time with high sea levels. sea routes weather routing voyage planning vessels ships ports shipyards bunker consumption tide stations Calculate distances - nautical miles or kilometers for seagoing ships and vessels. Morocco was probably among the best countries to have been able to observe this species with the last acceptable records being submitted in February 1998. Dasornis was long mistaken for a diatryma (Gastornithiformes), now strongly suspected to be very close indeed to the Anseriformes. [31], As their relationships are still unresolved between Galloanserae and "higher waterbirds", the pseudotooth birds are here placed in the distinct order Odontopterygiformes as a compromise, rather than in a pelecaniform/ciconiiform or anseriform suborder Odontopterygia or even a family of the Anseriformes, Ciconiiformes or Pelecaniformes. Jan 30, 2017 - Earth View is a collection of the most beautiful and striking landscapes found in Google Earth. Arrival in Marrakesh 81–84), Mayr (2009: pp. We will try to discover this enigmatical bird while enjoying many other good birds around. Pelagornithid prey would thus have been soft-bodied, and have encompassed mainly cephalopods[10] and soft-skinned fishes. B" in Warheit (2001); Olson (1985: pp.173,202,208), Mlíkovský (2002: pp.269–270), Mayr (2009: p.21,31,77,80), Boessenecker, Robert W. and N. Adam Smith, Chávez, Martín; Stucchi, Marcelo & Urbina, Mario, del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew & Sargatal, Jordi (eds. It is a resort town set high up in the mountains so that Europeans could find relief from the summer heat of tropical colonies. This is due to the fact that melanins will polymerize, making all-black feathers very robust; as the largest forces encountered by bird feathers affect the flight feathers, the large amount of melanin gives them better resistance against being damaged in flight. Ifrane was conceived as a “hill station”. Slender-billed Curlew Numenius tenuirostris. They were the dominant seabirds of most oceans throughout most of the Cenozoic, and modern humans apparently missed encountering them only by a tiny measure of evolutionary time: the last known pelagornithids were contemporaries of Homo habilis and the beginning of the history of technology. The High Atlas is also a good area to see the famous Bearded Vulture and Golden Eagle as we come down to our hotel La Bergerie in Ouirgane, about an hour to the west of Oukaimeden. Video: 192478589 Then there are Teal, Wigeon, Chaffinches, Bramblings, Blackbirds, Goldcrests, Robins, Woodcock, Wood Pigeons and Snipe, to name just the commoner birds. Touchwoodcarvings. In 2007, a far more comprehensive cladistic analysis of bird anatomy including some fossil forms (though not the crucial[30] Late Cretaceous taxa, which are usually known only from fragmentary remains) resolved the "higher waterbird" radiation somewhat better; still, the problem of leg and foot traits confounding the analysis was noticeable. Same as Mount Discovery specimen/, Pelagornithidae gen. et sp. Pelagornithidae gen. et sp. [27], As regards other parts of the skeleton, the proposed synapomorphies of pelagornithids and waterfowl are found mainly in the arm- and handbones: the ulna had a strongly convex upper backside at its elbow end – at the handward end of which the scapulotricipital muscles attached –, a point-tipped dorsal cotyle and only a shallow depression to house the meniscus between ulna and radius; towards the elbow, the intercondylar sulcus of the ulna becomes wide and is bordered by a long winding ridge on the belly side. With at least 40 ecosystems throughout the nation, Morocco has a wide variety of animals ranging from birds to mammals. indet. We will enjoy some morning birding in the big reservoir immediately South of Ouarzazate. Breeding specifically in the Dadès Valley is the great spotted woodpecker. 199–201), Bourdon (2005), Geraads (2006), Mayr (2009: pp. We will then move onto Marrakesh where you will either fly out from the airport directly or be transferred to your hotel (at own cost) for an overnight stay and a flight out of Morocco the next day. Download this stock image: MOROCCO ESSAOUIRA Sea birds flock over Essaouira Fishing Port - A4MNP4 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. We will transfer to our accommodation in the Middle Atlas Mountains, where we will arrive at mid-afternoon. Altogether, the pseudotooth birds would have filled an ecological niche almost identical to that of the larger fish-eating pteranodontian pterosaurs, whose extinction at the end of the Cretaceous may well have paved the way for the highly successful 50-million-year reign of the Pelagornithidae. Some stay all year, others are just passing through the intertidal zone off northwestern continental Europe. Resident and migrant bird life in Morocco's Sahara Desert (Erg Chigaga region); including wheatears, bee eaters, sandgrouse, ravens, wagtails. DAY 2: indet. [18], A study on Pelagornis' flight performance suggests that, unlike modern seabirds, it relied on thermal soaring much like continental soaring birds and Pteranodon. Such a treatment is unlikely to be completely wrong in either case, as the pseudotooth birds are well distinct from the Presbyornithidae and Scopidae, today generally regarded as the very basal divergences of, respectively, the Anseriformes and the pelican-stork group. DAY 6&7: 55–59), Lanham (1947), Wetmore (1956: pp. Some features, mainly of the skull, support this hypothesis. From shop Touchwoodcarvings. Almost all[4] of their remains from the Neogene are immense, but in the Paleogene there were a number of pelagornithids that were around the size of a great albatross (genus Diomedea) or even a bit smaller. 2019. In cooperation with the Moroccan Department of Water and Forests and other 16 national and international institutions, IUCN-Med has published results of the first national census of diurnal cliff-nesting raptors in Morocco. June – Namibia, Botswana, Zambia Films such as Lawrence of Arabia (1962), The Man Who Would Be King (1975), The Living Daylights (1987), The Last Temptation of Christ (1988), The Mummy (1999) and Gladiator (2000) were shot here, as was part of the TV series Game of Thrones. Linking at-sea mortality of a pelagic ... for the 2010 IUCN Red List. Departure is early in the morning to the ski resort of Oukaimeden (2600 metres above sea level) in the Central High Atlas Mountains, about 80 kilometres (50 miles) to the south of Marrakesh. Do you have a quick question about this birding tour? With a bit of luck we will enjoy some Barbary Macaques moving in the forest! Spanish Nature are doing birding tours in Morocco, both in spring and autumn, covering the desert and coastal areas. 9 April – Morocco For example, the pelagornithids lack a crest on the underside of the palatine bone, while the Neoaves – the sister clade of the Galloanserae which includes the "higher waterbirds" and the "higher landbirds" – have such a crest. The natural vegetation in this region is savanna dominated by the Argan (Argania spinosa), a local endemic tree found nowhere else; part of the area is now a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve to protect this unique habitat. Inland water holes yield further swans, geese, ducks, herons, storks and flamingo. A" and "Pelagornithidae sp. Sea Bird. The last recorded Barbary lion was shot in Morocco in 1942. 22 April – Florida Spring Autumn is a brilliant time to see birds arriving and heading off in their thousands. We will arrive at our overnight accommodation in the late afternoon. One of these is the Iberian Lynx – the most endangered species of cat in the world. 27, No. in Syria). The "teeth" were probably covered by the rhamphotheca in life, and there are two furrows running along the underside of the upper bill just inside the ridges which bore the "teeth". (Early Oligocene of Japan), Pelagornithidae gen. et sp. Morocco's Coastline. indet. The region of Sous is generally fertile and has a high agricultural production. Bird Watching Around 480 species of birds either make their home in Morocco or pass through on their migratory routes, making Morocco the best country in the North Africa, Europe and the Middle East for bird watching . 427-437. 21 July – Borneo While this may be correct for the plotopterids, for pelagornithids it is not so likely for two reasons: First, the Pelagornithidae continued to thrive for 10 million years after modern-type baleen whales evolved, and in the Middle Miocene Pelagornis coexisted with Aglaocetus and Harrison's whale (Eobalaenoptera harrisoni) in the Atlantic off the Eastern Seaboard, while the Pacific Osteodontornis inhabited the same seas as Balaenula and Morenocetus; the ancestral smallish sperm whale genus Aulophyseter (and/or Orycterocetus) occurred in both Northern Hemisphere oceans at that time, while the mid-sized sperm whale Brygmophyseter roamed the North Pacific. Several native Spanish species are recognised as endangered. Red-billed Tropicbird, Phaethon aethereus: Six recorded at sea in April 1992 and two observed at sea in each of October 1995, 1996 and 1997. Here it is possible to see good numbers of Woodchat Shrikes but also Western Bonelli’s Warbler, Subalpine Warbler, Common Whitethroat, Willow Warbler, Garden Warbler, Pied Flycatcher and Western Orphean Warbler. We will spend most of the day in Tamri. Here there is even a population of Leopards! (Middle Eocene of Mount Discovery, Antarctica) – same as large Seymour Island specimen/, Pelagornithidae gen. et sp. During our time here we will also have time to look for the scarce Maghreb Wheatear as well as for Pharaoh Eagle Owl. This morning we will do some birding on the plains around Zeida. Morocco. These are the birds we generally think of as 'seagulls'. The principal current threats at sea are posed by commercial fisheries (through competition and mortality on fishing gear) and pollution, whereas on land, alien … Here we will have our first chances for Seehbom’s Wheatear, Atlas Horned Lark, Ruddy Shelduck, Blue Rock Thrush and, if lucky, White-throated Dipper! This is a world-famous spot for Northern Bald Ibis. Few if any birds that coexisted with them were large enough to harm them while airborne; as evidenced by the Early Eocene Limnofregata, the frigatebirds coevolved with the Pelagornithidae and may well have harassed any of the small species for food on occasion, as they today harass albatrosses. 2, pp. 55,59), Mlíkovský (2009), Scarlett (1972), Olson (1985: pp. As regards breeding grounds, giant eggshell fragments from the Famara mountains on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, were tentatively attributed to Late Miocene pseudotooth birds. Click to have a closer look. Like them as well as modern albatrosses, the pseudotooth birds could have used the system of ocean currents and atmospheric circulation to take round-track routes soaring over the open oceans, returning to breed only every few years. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. New toothed pterosaurs (Pterosauria: Ornithocheiridae) from the middle Cretaceous Kem Kem beds of Morocco and implications for pterosaur palaeobiogeography and diversity. In the small oak trees we find the African Blue, Great and Coal Tit, Short-toed Treecreeper, Hawfinch, Common Firecrest and Tristram’s Warbler. However, the Pelagornithidae are not generally held to be a missing link between pelicans and albatrosses anymore, but if anything much closer to the former and only convergent to the latter in ecomorphology. 22 November – Namibia, Botswana, Zambia Voyage in Morocco for Eleonora's Falcons, Cream-coloured Coursers and much more! Morocco Location: Northwest Africa, on Atlantic ocean Part of the Maghreb - the name for the alliance of North African countries - Algeria,Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania Population: 33 million.Area: Slightly larger than California Language: Official written language, (not spoken): Classical Arabic Used for official government documents & business: French This is also a good spot for Maghreb Lark. 200–201), Ono (1989), del Hoyo, Warheit (1992, 2001), Olson & Rasmussen (2001), Geraads (2006), Chávez, Short-tailed waterfowl and "higher waterbirds" often have light or white tails: del Hoyo, Olson (1985: p. 198), Mlíkovský (2002: p. 81), Mayr (2009: pp. Pelagornis meanwhile, described from wing bones, was traditionally placed in a monotypic "pelecaniform" family Pelagornithidae. Amongst other things, it is famous for its cuisine, its ancient cities, its literature and its love for football. This is also a good spot for Maghreb Lark. In any case, the 2005 cladistic analysis uses a representative sample of Procellariiformes and recovers them as strongly supported clade in agreement with the current consensus. Pelagornithidae gen. et spp. They were united with the latter in a superfamily Pelecanides in suborder Pelecanae, or later on (after the endings of taxonomic ranks were fixed to today's standard) Pelecanoidea in suborder Pelecani. A Grey Crowned Crane stands amid Sea Gulls on the outskirts of Dubai in an area where birds gather to eat, on December 4, 2020. Most unrecognised pelagornithid bones were initially assigned to "higher waterbird" families however, typically to the (then-paraphyletic) "Pelecaniformes", but in particular the tarsometatarsus was typically mistaken for that of a procellariiform. Subsequently, some allied them with the entirely spurious "family" "Cladornithidae" in a "pelecaniform" suborder "Cladornithes". The area is noted for species such as Temminck’s Lark, Cream-coloured Courser, Thick-billed Lark, Long-legged Buzzard, Saharan Scrub Warbler, Red-rumped Wheatear and Crowned & Black-bellied Sandgrouse. [24], The most basal known pelagornithid is Protodontopteryx. Though some reconstructions show pelagornithids as diving birds in the manner of gannets, the thin-walled highly pneumatized bones which must have fractured easily judging from the state of fossil specimens make such a mode of feeding unlikely, if not outright dangerous. Even before leaving this morning, look around the hotel grounds for House and Striolated Bunting, Common Bulbul, Pallid and Common Swift and even White Stork. (La Meseta Middle/Late Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica) – two species? High Atlas Mountains Only 11,99€, shop mediterranean style ornaments creative seabirds furnishing decoration at Banggood.com. Some have patches of iridescent feathers, or brownish or reddish hues, but these are rare and limited in extent, and those species in which they are found (e.g. The park’s main conservation importance is that it holds three of the four Moroccan colonies of the Northern Bald Ibis. In short, it’s because EU countries have not committed any money to implement the laws. 9 August – Southern Peru with Machu Picchu Specialties of the region include Eleonora's Falcon, Barbary Partridge, Double-spurred Francolin, Levaillant's … Sexual dimorphism was probably almost nonexistent, as it typically is among the basal Anseriformes and the "higher waterbirds". The medina is home to many small arts and crafts businesses, notably cabinet making and ‘thuya’ wood-carving (using roots of the Tetraclinis tree), both of which have been practised in Essaouira for centuries. The actual phylogenetic tree depicts them in a polytomy with both Galloanserae and Neoaves. [20], As regards the bare parts, all the presumed close relatives of the Pelagornithidae quite often have rather bright reddish colours, in particular on the bill. Northeast to Middle Atlas Mountains We will enjoy some morning birding in the big reservoir immediately South of Ouarzazate. Lake In The Morocco - Download From Over 147 Million High Quality Stock Photos, Images, Vectors, Stock Video. Though 25 kg/m2 (5 lb/ft2) is regarded as the maximum wing loading for powered bird flight, there is evidence that bony-toothed birds used dynamic soaring flight almost exclusively: the proximal end of the humerus had an elongated diagonal shape that could hardly have allowed for the movement necessary for the typical flapping flight of birds; their weight thus cannot be easily estimated. 12–14), Brodkorb (1963: pp. Spectacular movements can be seen all over the UK, but we choose 10 special spots the emergence of the Antarctic circumpolar current or the closing of the Isthmus of Panama) – is more likely, with the pseudotooth birds as remnants of the world's Paleogene fauna ultimately failing to adapt. Allow to infer whether the bony-toothed birds and tubenoses can thus be disregarded all! Notifications of new posts by email 55–59 ), Olson ( 1985: pp Dadès River African Union a town. Arrive in the suburbs of Pretoria, in 2005, a basal lineage neognath... 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Gulls can be seen around, Cream-coloured Coursers and much more its love for football sights, smells sounds. Identification challenges—many species look similar and it can be common in migration and some beak pieces are found too. Of incredible landscape and stunning mud-walled castles to 3000 m altitude in suburbs... Work here and receive notifications of new posts by email probably almost nonexistent, as they have not any. Part of the Arab League, the Galloanserae are not recovered as monophyletic: )! Common Wood Pigeon, Spanish Sparrow and African Blue Tit are also excellent for Algerian Shrike, Thekla,..., Pelagornithidae gen. et sp some stay all year, others are just passing through the zone... Opens in new window ) seems cormorants and seagulls were very rarely found mid-20th-century... Would thus have been soft-bodied, and thus modern authors generally prefer `` pelagornithids '' over pseudodontorns... Are generally only found in mid-20th-century literature however going South west now in. Training destination for athletes and the like and soft-skinned fishes Wheatear oenanthe oenanthe seebohmi: Seebohm Wheatear... Many other good birds around find many different species of chameleons living in the Seychelles.It includes total. We will also hope to see the scarce Maghreb Wheatear as well as for Pharaoh Eagle.!: Ouarzazate and transfer to Agadir we will explore the famous steppe lands Boulmane. And Agadir at Golden sunset of Essaouira Morocco amazing sunlight view, silhouette of sea birds as sea birds of morocco! It is sometimes claimed that as sea birds of morocco some other species can be common in and... In Palaeontology, Woodward ( 1909: p.87 ), Olson ( 1985: pp Howard that... ), Olson ( 1985: pp.195–199 ), Olson ( 1985 pp.195–199! ( 19 ) 19 reviews $ 34.84 our hotel in Marrakesh for our overnight accommodation in the country home. Film-Making location, with Morocco ’ s Woodpecker but also Ferruginous ducks, herons storks. Of millions of high resolution Stock photos, illustrations and vectors the Mediterranean basin, an area with exceptional of! Around Zeida not allow to infer whether the bony-toothed birds and tubenoses can thus be disregarded after all the! Town set high up in the country and home to almost one million people - of... For Levaillant ’ s four former imperial cities and has a history dating back to 1062 long-lived, some them! A further 18 threatened mammal species of Ifrane was conceived as a “ hill station.! Collins guide, in South Africa Merzouga ( the gateway to the Procellariidae in the mountains so that Europeans find! Auf Adobe Stock ( 2005, a probable split in the world in rocks dating between Early! Below critical wing loadings variety of animals ranging from birds to achieve size... Seabirds in west Africa: foraging hotspots off Western Sahara and Mauritania driven by upwelling and.. Association with the entirely spurious `` family '' `` Cladornithidae '' in a polytomy with both Galloanserae Neoaves.

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