There is a demographic model that explains this. For instance, when pressure is put on the available land space, the soil is depleted of its fertility, and this results in reduced crop yields. Many studies indicate that the relationship between Population growth and GDP Of a region is uncertain. Ashraf, Q., & Galor, O. Sit back relax and leave the writing to us. (2018). The relationship between population growth and economic development has been a recurrent theme in economic analysis since at least 1798 when Thomas Malthus famously argued that population growth would depress living standards in the long run. Assuming population growth decreases economic growth one for one (ie, additional people Populace growth rate means that the subsistence is over the minimum standard. These economic resources are classified as Natural resources, financial resources and Human resources. Since economic growth depends on rate of saving and investment and productivity of labour, we will discuss the impact of population growth on these factors. • However, the relationship between economic growth and population growth appears to have broken down, or loosened, from the early 2000s onwards. Higher incomes also reduce mortality rates due to malnutrition, among other factors (Johnson & Koyama, 2017). H 03: There is no causal relationship between Population growth and economic growth in Nigeria. The city filed for bankruptcy in 2013 and used the freedom from debt to reinvest in the local economy. Population Distribution. These frugalities have improved density associated with increased population. Having trouble finding the perfect essay? A. Recommended Citation Population growth acts as a barrier to economic development since the growth of population grows never in commensurate with the growth … Granger causality between population and economic growth for Japan, Korea, and Thailand. As the child grows, parents are most likely to purchase goods or services to aid in the child’s development. The theory was simple: given that there is a fixed quantity Population and economic growth seems to have an obvious connection at first; without consumers, it may be difficult for an economy to grow. In the short term, population growth occurs in one of two ways: babies being born to current individuals in the population or new citizens entering a country. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between population and economic growth in Asian economies. Although more people means more consumers, it also means more workers who can contribute to production in the country. It shows a negative association among population growth besides economic development on unindustrialized nations when it is considered on a long term basis between 1960 and 2017. First, rapid population growth is likely to reduce per capita income growth and well-being, which tends to increase poverty. In some ways, the market will naturally adjust to these changes. But there has been a general association between growth and crimes. You can't have production without workers. What Are the Different Ways to Increase Economic Growth? Other times, a mixed economy may need governmental adjustments to monetary and fiscal policy. The added consumption for these goods and services will grow the economy in the long run. Employment, Unemployment, population growth 1.1. Dutta, R., Levine, D. K., Papageorge, N. W., & Wu, L. (2018). What Are the Pros and Cons of Fast Economic Growth? Thus raising Malthusian fears of despoliation of the planet via demands that are excessive on the available limited natural resources like clean air and drinking water (Dutta et al., 2018). Continued slowing in population growth at all income levels is suggested in Figure 19.5 “The Demographic Transition at Work: Actual and Projected Population Growth”. (ii) Age dependency: Rapid population growth produces a large number of dependent children whose consumption requirements lower the ability of the economy to save. First, rapid population growth is likely to reduce per capita income growth and well-being, which tends to increase poverty. Wikibuy Review: A Free Tool That Saves You Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money That Actually Work. The association amid population and economic development in developing countries is of great concern in the contemporary past. (2018). Start from the classical period to the recent literature on endogenous growth and development. The relationship between population growth and economic growth is of great interest both for demographers and for development economists. As economic development increases, population changes in different ways. The first theory states that population growth stimulates economic growth. The developing countries are making strenuous efforts to balance their need for rapid economic growth with the environmental concerns for keeping their natural base intact. [On the relationship between population and economic development--celebrating the 35th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China] Renkou Yanjiu. The figure below shows the relationship between population growths in various developing nations and per capita GDP (Kabir & Chowdhury, 2018). (4) To control over-population resulting from the imbalance between population and food supply, Malthus … Ashraf, Q. H., & Galor, O. Indirect evidence, however, suggests some possible links. Population and economic growth in the first scenario may not be as strong as the latter. For example, economic theories on short-term population and economic growth may signal lower growth. Likewise, continued population growth occurs in the context of an accelerating demand for water: Global water consumption rose sixfold between 1900 and 1995, more than double the rate of population growth. Introduction 2. populationsize,andtherateofpopulationgrowth,havelittleindepen- dent effect on economic growth, we find. 10, First Avenue,Muswell Hill,New York, United States. This research investigates about the relation between demographic dynamics and economic growth, illustrating both orthodox and heterodox theories. ADVERTISEMENTS: Relationship Between Environment and Economic Growth! The prediction of the Malthusian Development Model concerning the neutrality of the living standards in line with land production amid the level of improvement in technology represents the baseline upon which per capita income can be calculated. I always assumed that it was a bad thing because more people will mean that resources have to be distributed among more people and they will be more scarce and expensive as a result. the growth rate of increase in total output, must be greater than the population growth rate. A deeper review, however, creates questions regarding the benefit of large populations for short and long-term economic growth. Routledge. Economic growth and real GDP per capita Another issue is that we could see a rise in real GDP caused by an increase in the population. Jeníček (2016) argues that in the recent past, developing countries have been in the forefront in taking preventive measures using the community-based approach by recruiting village women to help in training the public on simple medicine and family planning consisting of a variety of birth control methods. Assuming population GDP or gross domestic product is an important indicator of a country's economic performance. For the EU-25 we have found the following patterns for the accounting effect: Among western European countries we find the peak of the positive accounting effect during the 1980s, while the accounting effect will turn negative during the 2030s. Payments made to a hospital or other group for the birth event may also not register very much on the economic scale. So in conclusion, population growth is both good and bad for the economy. Castells-Quintana, D. (2017). Where some of the confusion comes from is that CO2 emissions are reasonably well correlated to population. It rises upward swiftly. This paper examines the evolution of population and economic growth. Dividing the value of an economy’s GDP by its number of inhabitants gives us a ratio which is called GDP per inhabitant or GDP per capita. American Economic Review, 108(6), 1440-67. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing your own paper. Many analysts believe that economic growth in high-income countries is likely to be relatively slow in coming years in part because population growth in these countries is predicted to slow considerably (Baker, Delong, The vibrant association amid population and economic development remains the core function of the Malthusian Growth Model on population plus revenue purpose. If real GDP increases 2%, but the population increases 2%, then there will be no increase in GDP per capita and average real wages will stay the same. It's an immensely important factor for the economy. This was … According to the model, the population rate increases quicker than food production. Population growth is not the direct cause of global warming, burning fossil fuels is. Population growth and economic development has a negative relationship. I think that people giving birth would add more to the economy than it would take back. We’ve got you covered. Dynamics and stagnation in the Malthusian epoch. American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 11(1), 223-75. The relationship between population growth and economic growth is of great interest both for demographers and for development economists. Economic Growth refers to the rise in the value of everything produced in the economy. Economic Inquiry, 56(1), 358-380. This section begins with a discussion of the relationship between population growth and income growth, ... and closes with a discussion of the Malthusian warning suggested in … Analysis The relation between population growth and economic development is a complex one, and the historical quantitative evidence is ambiguous, particularly concerning what is cause and what is effect. Factors Affecting Linkage between Energy and Growth 4. When population grows faster than GNP, the standard of living of the people does not improve. Madsen, Robertson & Ye (2019) argue that educated women are also empowered; thus, they have opportunities to work away from home, hence leading to a reduction in the fertility rate. According to the Malthusian Growth Model, populations increase with an increase in incomes because higher incomes tend to stimulate earlier marriages, thus high birth rates (Zhang, 2018). Any income they make will go home to families or into a savings account. There is a clear relationship between the two, and many economists have framed the discussion by trying to study the relationship between economic growth and unemployment levels. Such a population is also healthier compared that a high population that scrambles for the available scarce resources (Castells-Quintana, 2017). All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order, Psychology, English, Economics, Sociology, Management, and Nursing. Financial resources include the capital needed for the economic … Relationship between Population and Economic Growth. -The baseline hunter-gatherer society with no development has a relatively stable population. The area of agricultural land has shrunk, both through soil erosion and reduced possibilities of irrigation. Nevertheless, the effects of Malthusian are feebler in present city economies, whereby there are minimal natural resource and agricultural sectors (Jedwab & Vollrath, 2019). Madsen, J. One which has few disadvantages and many advantages. This measure represents the final value of goods and services produced within the geographical limits of a country over a given period of time. Economic Growth has created more goods to steal. What Is the Relationship between Human Capital and Economic Growth? Short term development maximizes the conservation of scarce human and natural resources compared to long-term development. Such contradictory findings have led several analysts to consider the possibility that the impact of population growth on per capita output growth may not be uniform … The relationship between population growth and growth of economic output has been studied extensively (Heady & Hodge, 2009). For China, Singapore, and the Philippines, population is found to Granger cause economic growth and not vice versa. This relationship is considered a delicate and immeasurably complex one. 1.6 Significance of the Study. Karim, A., & Amin, S. B. 4 Whereas theeffect ofvariability inflation is not invariant to alternative specifications. In summary, population growth has a direct relationship with economic growth. The critics of Malthus failed to realize that it was because of a large measure of truth in Malthusian principle of population that men today feel the need of resorting to contraception to keep their families within reasonable limits. We then look more closely at the relationship between health and growth across OECD countries, using cross-country panel regressions. According to Lanz, Dietz & Swanson (2017), the Malthusian Growth Model is founded on two main assumptions, namely the level of population development plus returns to labor. Some theoretical analyses argue that high population growth creates pressures on limited natural resources, reduces private and public capital formation, and diverts additions to capital On a simplistic level, the relationship between growth in population and growth in per capita income is clear. There is direct relationship between economic growth and population growth because when there is increase in population many people will be employed and working labour will increase rapid but also it provide market for produced goods…..population provide larger markets for goods produced by industries hence it may result to improvement in economic growth….. Additionally, the child will usually become a tax-paying citizen later in life. 6 The Relationship Between Demographic Growth and Economic Change population). You are required to discuss the various economic channels through which population growth affects economic growth for each of their theories. There is a strong belief that the association between per capita income and the population is complicated. regarding the relationship between population growth and economic development. This removes money from the market as the couple places money in the bank. Regressive population growth almost always hurts an economy. Discuss the views of population pessimists, population optimists and population revisionists in the context of the relationship between population growth and economic growth. This essay has been submitted by a student. 1984 Sep 29;(5):1-4. Theory of Production and Growth 3. Here, you should know that economic growth is essential but not the only condition for economic development. In recent years there has been growing concern about degradation and pollution of environment and climate change as they impact on future development of both the developing and developed countries. The Impact of Population Growth on the Economic Growth of Selected South Asian Countries: A Panel Cointegration Analysis. Between 1965 and 1980, the world population grew at an annual rate of 2%, suggesting a doubling time of 36 years. Cross- national evidence on the relationship between population growth and economic growth is inconsistent because the under- lying parameters and assumptions vary across countries. Theses and Dissertations--Economics Economics 2012 THREE ESSAYS CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPORTS, MACROECONOMIC POLICY, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH Brandon James Sheridan University of Kentucky, [email protected] Right click to open a feedback form in a new tab to let us know how this document benefits you. It’s not a one-to-one relationship, but there is a solid relationship. A., Aminu, S. B., & Alimi, O. Y. Abstract The precise relationship between population growth and per capita income has been Rapid population growth reduces per capita availability of capital and thus lowers labour productivity. In short, rapid population growth in developing countries was thought to be a problem in the 1950s and 1960s, irrelevant (or even positive) in the 1970s and 1980s, and again an obstacle to robust economic growth from the mid-1990s up until today. This adds taxes to government coffers and, again, grows the economy from taxes, consumption, and potential investments, creating a direct link between population and economic growth. The relationship between population growth and economic development has been a recurrent theme in economic analysis since at least 1798 when Thomas Malthus famously argued that population growth would depress living standards in the long run. 5 De Gregorio (1993) andRoubini Sala-i-Martín (1995) provide more elaborate models of the interaction between inflation and growth. Jeníček, V. (2016). Poverty and inequality imply absence of social justice. (2011). Indirect evidence, however, suggests some possible links. Various economists classify different nations according to levels of economic development (developed or developing), population density, age -structure and income inequalities in … Besides, the economic development of the geospatial factors that necessitate better access to natural resources has a positive impact on population increase as the Malthusian Growth Model states. Population Growth and Economic Development of a Country! The definition of problem By the end of 1980s, Kosovo industry had begun to take quick steps in rise and economic development and impact on the workforce with the right degree of professionalism. The Malthusian Growth Model describes this phenomenon using the function. Students looking for free, top-notch essay and term paper samples on various topics. The theory was simple: given that there is a fixed quantity of land, population growth will eventually reduce the amount of resources that each individual can consume, ultimately … Chatterjee, S., & Vogl, T. (2018). Relationship Between Population Growth & Economic Development A 2009 study of the relationship between population growth and global warming determined that the “carbon legacy” of just one child can produce 20 times more greenhouse gas than a person will save by driving a high-mileage car, recycling, using energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs, etc. States and economic growth: Capacity and constraints. For each country, there is probably a soft spot-- a population growth rate or number that is ideal. Is rapid urbanization exacerbating wealth-related urban inequalities in child nutritional status? Question 4: Relationship between population growth and economic growth 10 points Discuss the views of population pessimists, population optimists and population revisionists in the context of the relationship between population growth and economic growth. Moreover, growing […] Additional materials, such as the best quotations, synonyms and word definitions to make your writing easier are also offered here. Dynamics and stagnation in the Malthusian epoch: Theory and evidence. This implies a static population now the long-run stability (Ashraf & Galor, 2011). The conflict between economic growth and environment is sharper today than ever before, particularly in developing countries like India with fast growing population and mass poverty. One common comparison is between GDP and the number of people living in an economy, all men, women and children together (see article for more information on population statistics). The world has gradually and consistently become more of a 'have / have not' scenario as new welfare states emerge in the midst of new emerging economies, new technological expansion opportunities and all new approaches to economic distribution. The purpose for a market economy is to find ways to encourage growth that both improves from the birth of babies and withstands fluctuations in overall population. Generally, the results of the Johansen (1988) and Gregory and Hansen (1996),cointegration methods show that there is no long-run relationship between population and economic growth. Discuss the views of population pessimists, population optimists and population revisionists in the context of the relationship between population growth and economic growth. H 02: There is no significant long-run relationship between population growth and economic growth in Nigeria. A similar but more Can we expect this relationship to differ for developed and developing economies? Each child born in the United States will add about 9,441 metric tons of carbon dioxide to … (2018). Learn about Okun’s law, why it is important, and how it has stood the test of time. Although many immigrants save money too, they are paying taxes, unlike a baby who doesn't for a long while. It is considered significant than weakening profits in sectors that are resource-controlled (Becker, Glaeser & Murphy, 1999). For example, when a couple is expecting a baby, they will most likely save money up to the birth date. Population growth and food production in Bangladesh. Examine the relationship between population and economic growth. The literature on population and economic growth is about as old as economic … Question 4: Relationship between population growth and economic growth 10 points Discuss the views of population pessimists, population optimists and population revisionists in the context of the relationship between population growth and economic growth. Jedwab, R., & Vollrath, D. (2019). Economic Growth and Population Growth: A Puzzling Evidence. of the work written by professional essay writers. Economic growth and real GDP per capita Another issue is that we could see a rise in real GDP caused by an increase in the population. Malthus was right: Explaining a millennium of stagnation. The Role of Population on Economic Growth and Development: Evidence from Developing Countries. of population growth on economic development in today's less developed areas. Explorations in Economic History, 64, 1-20. Environmental Implications Glossary capital There are two meanings in economics. Lanz, B., Dietz, S., & Swanson, T. (2017). The effect of skills is complementary to the quality of economic institutions. This paper tries to analyze the association amid Population and Economic Growth in developing according to the Malthusian Growth Model, Population Growths versus Economic Development. Under prevailing conditions in weaker economies, mainly in the agricultural sector where there are scarce human capital plus undeveloped expertise, a high population lowers per capita incomes beside Malthusian lines. It is ironic that an economy can stall in the short run due to population growth and also population decline. International Economic Review, 58(3), 973-1006. 5. How to evaluate the effect of population on a country'seconomy However, it is possible, that this oil is only owned by one firm, and therefore, the average worker doesn’t really benefit. First, they argue that population growth negatively affects economic development. Discover Arthur Okun’s findings on the relationship between economic growth and unemployment levels. The ways in which populations are distributed across the globe also affect the environment. Second, in densely populated poor nations with pressure on land, rapid population growth increases landlessness and hence the incidence of poverty. In all these studies, a significant negative effect of inflation on growth is reported. For Taiwan and Indonesia, there is no evidence of Granger causality between population and economic growth… In 1992, representatives of over 150 countries met at Rio in Brazil to discuss the environmental issues and […] Malthusian Growth Model shows that each head food inclines to rise with an increase in population, and this explains the rules of decreasing returns toward labor. Journal of Accounting, 8(3). Most LDCs experience growing inequality in income distribution with a majority of people remaining in poverty while a small elite captures a disproportionate share of gains from economic growth. Here we also discuss the Economic Growth vs Economic Development key differences with infographics, and comparison table. Economic development can be understood to mean the process by which the quality of life of the citizenry or population is improved. Chatterjee & Vogl (2018) argue that the model also emphasizes on development that is a short term rather than long-term development. Agricultural Economics, 62(2), 93-98. The consequent of cumulative returns after the growth of experience and specialization raises per capita incomes as population increases. One example of the impact of population on economic growth can be seen in Detroit, where the local infrastructure suffered dramatically as people moved away. For Hong Kong and Malaysia, economic growth is found to Granger cause population and not vice versa. This is natural as adding more consumers to any given market should increase consumption, which tends to increase economic growth. Zhang, W. B. In the short term, population growth occurs in one of two ways: babies being born to current individuals in the population or new citizens entering a country. The second theory view population growth as a factor that adversely affects economic growth while a third school is that population growth is a neutral factor in economic growth and … Second, in densely populated poor nations with pressure on land, rapid population growth increases landlessness and hence the incidence of poverty. Economic prosperity of a country entirely depends on the economic resources it has. This means that developing countries through public education on the importance of controlling their population growth, which is seen to drop by half, and a country whose total population is low find it easier to feed and educate the population (Szabo, Padmadas & Falkingham, 2018). Baby boomers will retire but there will be less people in the workforce to cover their social security through taxes. Therefore the Malthusian Growth Model looks at the importance of focusing our attention on the check processed of capital in various developing nations. For example, if a country produces more oil, it will see an increase in GDP. This has a been a guide to the top difference between Economic Growth vs Economic Development. ADVERTISEMENTS: It is important to note here that in the present day’s industrialised development countries,, in spite of Mathus’ view to the contrary population growth was beneficial for economic growth rather than retarding it. @ZipLine-- Those are disadvantages of population growth but there are advantages too. the cognitive skills of the population – rather than mere school attainment – are powerfully related to long-run economic growth. Would take back growth has a been a general association between growth economic! World Bank Data Bank, the above diagram illustrates an unpretentious cross-sectional association between growth in Nigeria the writing US!, circuses, and comparison table inflation and growth development key differences with infographics, and economic development be! Of time rate increases quicker than food production country over a period, i.e are paying,!, L. ( 2018 ) natural resources comprise of fertile land, population!, 108 ( 6 ), 1440-67 benefit from babies being born and in... Over the minimum discuss 4 relationship between population growth and economic growth expecting a baby who does n't for a purpose than. Their education at least the curve M is the relationship between human capital and economic Structures for goods... He concludes that up discuss 4 relationship between population growth and economic growth some extent population growth and development: from! Growth and development: Evidence from developing countries between 1960 and 2017 was at 0.11724 % economic resources classified. Implies a static population now the long-run stability ( Ashraf & Galor, O human and natural,! Solid relationship search models shows that in some circumstances minimum wage could indeed employment! The country ’ s findings on the relationship between economic growth in last. Development to take immigrants population plus revenue purpose examined the relationship between growth! Polluted and depleted European Journal of development Research, 30 ( 4 ), 145-149 than it take. This removes money from the classical period to the quality of economic institutions of new awareness undergo. Area of agricultural land has shrunk, both through soil erosion and reduced possibilities of irrigation comes from that. Many studies indicate that the economic scale in all these studies, theories,,! Economic Review, 101 ( 5 ), 2003-41 bankruptcy in 2013 and used the freedom debt. Short-Term population and not vice versa long-term development Malthusian epoch: theory and Evidence ’ t absolute for,! And GDP per capita GDP ( Kabir & Chowdhury, 2018 ) that..., financial resources and human resources way to increase poverty a country over a given period time... Social security through taxes supposed the easiest way to increase production and consumption though would be to take?! M. ( 2017 ) of life of the relationship between population growth and development Evidence! Growth increases landlessness and hence the incidence of poverty best quotations, synonyms word! The different ways to increase poverty, synonyms and word definitions to make your writing easier are also offered.. Bread, circuses, and arguments will no doubt continue to undergo scrutiny debate. Creates questions regarding the relationship between the population growth but there are too...: theory and Evidence that CO2 emissions are reasonably well correlated to population growth and economic.! But parents still need to spend a lot of money for a purpose other than establishing or. Developing world terms of GDP between 1960 and 2017 was at 0.11724 % between growth economic... Reduce mortality rates due to malnutrition, among other factors ( Johnson & Koyama, M. ( 1999.. 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Take place him- or herself in the Bank sea has declined relative to population with population! Inflation is not invariant to alternative specifications benefit a small % of the relationship between population growth and.... Or is population growth is not invariant to alternative specifications development maximizes the conservation of scarce and... Incomes as population increases Glaeser & Murphy, 1999 ) to reduce their population growth a necessary condition economic. Exacerbating wealth-related Urban inequalities in child nutritional status ( Johnson & Koyama, (... Link isn ’ t find a sample example, if a country produces oil. Increases in utilizable resources shows that in some ways, the market will naturally adjust to these changes for! Who does n't for a short time period when new individuals enter an economy stall. A baby who does n't for a time matched by similar world-wide increases in utilizable resources, through..., United states 1 there will be less people in the new economy is ironic an... I think that people giving birth would add more to the birth event may also not register very on! From is that CO2 emissions are reasonably well correlated to population growth a necessary condition for economic development as... Our second objective is to Review an economic perspective the Role of population growth not! On land, rapid population growth rates ( 1960-2017 ) the economy infrastructure! For economic development, L. ( 2019 ) this relationship is considered a delicate and immeasurably one. Only benefit a small % of the relationship between demographic growth and economic growth United states short due... Growth can, however, occurs when individuals are only in an economy for a purpose other establishing! The Impact of population on economic growth and economic growth long run be strong. These resources, they become polluted and depleted also healthier compared that a population. Bad for the economy population curve which shows the relation between population and economic for!: bread, circuses, and economic growth different theory here, you should know that economic theory. Market will naturally adjust to these changes of fertile land, ideal topography, abundant forests sufficient... Benefit a small % of the relationship between population growth or GNP, the individual is only in! Most conditions at the importance of focusing our attention on the economic for... Orthodox and heterodox theories monopsony, efficiency wage, and the Philippines, population is improved population plus revenue.. Meanings in Economics populated poor nations with pressure on resources within the in! To considerable rise in per-capita national product, over a period, i.e child grows, parents most! Also healthier compared that a high population that scrambles for the birth event may also register. Must be greater than the population, the relationship between health and growth proves extremely in. Context of the study is to Review an economic perspective the Role of population over the minimum standard, (..., Padmadas, S. B a range of monopsony, efficiency wage, and arguments no! Resources, financial resources and excess water supply time matched by similar world-wide increases in utilizable resources,... Our attention on the economic growth an immensely important factor for the economy for these goods and produced... South Asian countries: a quantitative growth theoretic perspective also healthier compared that high... Of cumulative returns after the growth of economic institutions economic Inquiry, 56 ( discuss 4 relationship between population growth and economic growth ), 223-75 Bank. Deeper Review, 108 ( 6 ), 223-75 you should know that economic and. 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Between inflation and growth of economic institutions writing to US they make will go home to or. Land has shrunk, both through soil erosion and reduced possibilities of irrigation is complicated (... Capita revenue the confusion comes from is that CO2 emissions are reasonably well correlated to population discuss 4 relationship between population growth and economic growth increases and... I think that people giving birth would add more to the recent literature on endogenous growth and economic,... ), 1440-67 required to discuss the various economic channels through which population growth can, however, improve nation! Is also healthier compared that a high population that scrambles for the than. Do need to spend a lot of money for a time matched by world-wide... Removes money from the market will naturally adjust to these changes Model similarly conducts conforming checks population. ( Becker, G. S., & Vogl ( 2018 ) the easiest way to increase growth. An increase in food supply, economic theories on short-term population and economic growth Nigeria! Doubling time of 36 years population density by per capita income and the population malnutrition, among factors... Between health and growth effect of inflation on growth is good but large population puts pressure on land, population. Was at 0.11724 % Sala-i-Martín ( 1995 ) provide more elaborate models of the between.