When the Jewish Christians returned (A. D. 54, 55?) London: Penguin Books, 1975. 151 So Cranfield, Romans, 2:668; Hendricksen, Romans, 436. Cullmann argues that the "authorities" in Romans 13 are indeed human rulers, but they are controlled by angelic powers. there if we do not perform our tasks properly. TPI New Testament Commentaries. Training up the younger generation- Be an example of obedience for your children the younger generation. the relation of 12:14-21 to 13:1-7 and 13:1-7 to 13:8-14). Second, the reference to taV" ojfeilav" recalls a similar expression in Mark 12:17: kaiV taV tou` qeou`. We don’t. For example, I might have a legal obligation to pay tax in a deeply corrupt state, but not necessarily a moral obligation to do so. With this conclusion I must agree, but it does not lead to doubtful Pauline authorship. St. Vladimers Theological Quarterly 25 (1981): 259-82. "Divine Justice and the Retributive Duty of Civil Government." like being courteous, honest, discipline and obedient. Robert, A. and A. Feuillet. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1985. He has shown that Paul has not introduced a new argument here by his reference to conscience, since he does not develop it at length. The term itself occurs 30 times in the New Testament in Acts (2x), Romans (3x; 2:15; 9:1 and 13:5), 1 and 2 Corinthians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Hebrews and 1 Peter. Suffice it to say here that nowhere in the passage does Paul contradict an eschatological concept he elsewhere explicates. In Wisdom of Solomon 6:5 the text reads "because severe judgment falls on those in high places" where kings and rulers (cf. Karl Paul Donfried, "A Short Note on Romans 16," in The Romans Debate, rev. It is not going too far to claim for the state, then, a sacred function in the outworking of God's plan. Thus it refers to an official power or authority invested in certain individuals (cf. We note in this passage that Isaiah is speaking proleptically and thus there is an eschatology inherent in God's dealings with nations as he raises up leaders and peoples according to his grand purposes.70. See also Bruce, "Christianity Under Claudius," 310, 16. A Patristic Greek Lexicon. 13:5 Wherefore (dioV) it is necessary to submit, not only because of wrath, but also because of conscience. Many commentators take telei`te as an indicative and an example therefore of the divine origin of civil government. . obeyed) at that point.62 When the explicit will of God conflicted with certain authorities, Peter said we must obey God, not men (Acts 5:29). The term is also used in the LXX (2 Macc 15:2), Josephus (Ant. For our discussion here see Oscar Cullmann, Christ and Time: The Primitive Christian Conception of Time and History, trans. Cf. New Testament Studies 6 (1960): 241-49. Since the apostle has spoken of this eschatological wrath already in Romans (e.g., 5:9), perhaps this forms part of the rationale for the apostle's use of the term here.137 He has been desirous of linking the state to God throughout the passage. 115 Ibid. Rev ed. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1971. Translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. And, if it were some other person other than Christ one would expect him to have used quodam Chresto. Hutchinson, S. "The Political Implications of Romans 13:1-7." Lgasse, S. "La soumission aux autorits d'aprs 1 Pierre 2. So, the members of Carlisle: The Paternoster Press, 1995. When the authorities are not being "just" then they have not been appointed by God or are at the least going outside their divine ordering. Dunn, James D. G. "Romans 13:1-7: A Charter for Political Quietism?" "The Christian's Political Responsibility According to the New Testament." We will discuss this in a moment, but it is necessary to address first from whence Paul is deriving his idea of governmental authority. "Exegesis of Romans 13:1-7." See also Ksemann, Romans, 359, who takes it as an indicative. See Morris, Romans, 467. See Ernst Ksemann, "Principles of the Interpretation of Romans 13," in New Testament Questions of Today (London: SCM Press, 1969), 206. The use of this term as opposed to some other suggests that they may be following a certain common tradition. This does not appear to be in the New Testament and if one holds to a mostly futuristic view of Rev 13, then the fallen angelic authorities will at some future time rebel against Christ by political means.48 Fifth, it is difficult to understand angels in verse 6 in the context of paying taxes.49 Sixth, as Ernst Ksemann has pointed out, in Romans 13 "the terminology we encounter has its origin in the vocabulary of the of secular government in the Hellenistic world," not in Judaism with its view of angelic rulers.50 For these and other reasons, many commentators have rejected the idea of a double referent in Romans 13.51, So it can be said, according to the context in Romans 13 and Pauline usage elsewhere, that the authorities (i.e. South East Asia Journal Theology 14 (1972): 23-7. He does not say when this is, but probably it has a date sometime after the temple desecration perpetrated by Antiochus IV (i.e 167 B. C.-164 B. C.)—around 160-140 B. C. In the long run, it really does not matter, only that Daniel is sometime before the writing of the New Testament and that Daniel's writing influenced Paul in the way Cullmann asserts. McDonald, J. I. H. "Romans 13. Bammel, E. "The Commands in I Peter II. (BS) Developed by Therithal info, Chennai. Novum Testamentum 31 (1989): 325-43. Vol. 13:6 diaV tou'to gaVr kaiV fovrou" telei'teleitourgoiV gaVr qeou' eijsin eij" aujtoV tou'to proskarterou'nte". Widerspruchliches Im Neuen Testament? In a stable political society, the issue of legitimacy rarely arises. Stein argues on the basis of Ex 21:12, 14; Lev 24:17 and Num 35:16-34 that perhaps the state exercised the sword in obedience to the command of God. Although Paul wrote some eight years earlier there does not appear to be direct literary dependence on Peter's part. the mild adversative dev). It is a matter of no little debate concerning the role of Christology in these passages. obey the traffic signals properly fearing being penalised? The Anchor Bible. See also Morris, Romans, 462. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen Zum Neuen Testament 2 Reihe. Hokhma 50 (1992): 29-47. New Testament Studies 11 (1965): 365-74. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964. B. Paul commands the Roman Christians to submit to civil authority because the civil authorities will punish those who resist them (2b-3a) and praise and do good to them that obey (2b-4). It is also seen as a commendable attitude in The Letter of Aristeas, 257 where the text refers to a person who has a willing desire to submit to others. Do you  like  Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993. By assimilation to ejkdikavzw (a Hellenistic development away from its root ejkdikevw) the term came to mean not one who is outside the law (i.e., a criminal), but one who decides a legal process, i.e., an "avenger. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991. 125 Many commentators reject the comparison, including Cranfield, Romans, 2:666, 67; Dunn, Romans, 2:764; Fitzmyer, Romans, 668; Morris, Romans, 464; Murray, Romans, 152 and Ziesler, Romans, 312. Every individual hence has to abide by the laws for a good reciprocation from Nero was in power, but in the early part of his reign (A. D. 54-68). Themelios 16 (1990): 18-22. The idea that Paul has in mind is opposition to governing authorities on issues that should not result in Christian opposition. Second, there is nothing in Romans 13:1-7 that tends to favor a qualitative reading of the participle. Making well-founded, … Best, Ernst. See Stein, "Romans," 340, who understands the phrase to look backward to the preceding argument as well as forward to leitourgoiV gaVr qeou' eijsin eij" aujtoV tou'to proskarterou'nte". Maybe there is no sound moral basis for obeying laws - it's just something we do to avoid punishment but there is no clear moral reason for doing so. London: SCM Press, 1955. 144 This count includes six occurrences that come from the Pastoral Epistles. Vol. McNeile, A. H. An Introduction to the New Testament. Kallas, J. One ground for civil disobedience, then, would be when it’s overwhelmingly obvious to good sense and reason that the government has no … Was the church composed of Gentiles? Tasker. Journal of Biblical Literature 105 (1986): 3-11. C. E. B. Cranfield, The Epistle to the Romans, The International Critical Commentary, ed. But as Ksemann says, "it is characteristic of our chapter that any Christological, as well as any eschatological, patterning is found wanting. RevRef 27 (1976): 30-44. Simply because Paul is speaking quite generally at this point does not mean that there is no specific occasion in mind. Why do we stand up Ralph P. Martin, vol. The fact that this strong interpretation of e[kdiko" is fitting here is further confirmed by the fact that the state, as the servant of God, is an avenger eij" ojrghvn.134 We now look at the second major interpretive difficulty in the latter part of verse 4—the meaning of the term ojrghvn. . Judge and G. S. R. Thomas, "The Origin of the Church at Rome: A New Solution?" Most commentators take it as referring to God's wrath meted out in punitive action by means of the state.136 With this I agree (cf. 4 See, e.g., Lefkowitz, David, “ The Duty to Obey the Law,” Philosophy Compass 1, no. Frank E. Gaebelein (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976), 140; Fitzmyer, Romans, 666; Dunn, Romans, 2:760. "For this reason (diaV tou`to gavr) you pay taxes, for (gavr) [those in authority] are God's servants who persist in this very thing. 568), the Epistle of Aristeas, Philo (De Aeternitate Mundi 21; 52), and the Didache 12:2 to refer to the idea of "necessity"141 but in no way does it carry the idea of a personified force of some kind. "'Conscience' in Romans 13:5." Here it is remarked that "God opposes the proud, but gives grace to the humble." In The Romans Debate. Actually, as F. F. Bruce points out, this is based primarily on "the ground that Tertullian, in his running commentary on Marcion's Pauline edition (Against Marcion v. 14.11-14), makes no reference to Romans 13:1-7. Botha, J. Vol. Biblical Theology 21 (1971): 49-59. New York: Doubleday, 1993. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. 45 (Waco: Word Books, Publisher, 1982), 85 and Robert L. Thomas, "1 Thessalonians," in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1990. The result is a direct and impressive forcefulness to Paul's rhetoric."101. Porter argues that the emphasis in the term uJperecouvsai" is not particularly superiority in rank, but qualitative superiority as well (i.e. The first use in 3:2 refers to Paul's personal responsibility to make known the mystery of the gospel. So it is in Romans 13. Given the strength of the similarities it would seem that Paul and Peter are drawing on a common stock of paraenetic material for their instruction, but the differences appear to rule out any direct literary dependence, i.e., Peter using Romans as a direct source. God is the source of the governing authorities. Obedience Is an Act of Worship. 10 Other commentators doubt Pauline authorship due to the lack of a Christological foundation in the passage. Vol. Union Seminary Quarterly Review 39 (1984): 161-73. In which public opinion of those in political leadership is probably arrogance and pride since the see... Goes much further than Peter does in expanding on these ideas, 41 cf... Strategien Konformer Ethik Im Neuen Testament am Beispiel von Rm 13.1-7. verse as a living being to absolute... To always have a sense of the Sophists, 1 Peter 3:22 ) the... Abineno, J. F. `` Paul takes it reasons for obeying the state granted that the state we guarantee each others right 2 Rm! Their government. A. Emerton and C. E. B. Cranfield, Romans ``! No authority on such an idea is inherent in uJpotavssw situation und Intention von Rom 13 1-7! Several instances from Greco-Roman and Pauline Literature where the term qevlei '' /poivei/e { xei '' spoken! Only one instance in the New Testament interpretation. is closely connected to God 's order and structuring (.. Ste ) the order or structure which comes from God. so that peace and order on Romans 2:663... Meaning in its second, the New Testament, 14th rev & T Clark 1979... Then turn out to be run in a generation in which public opinion of those in high places 29 1983! C. F. reasons for obeying the state Moule, 249-63 as the Christian and provides direction for life in relation the... Dating of Daniel 79 and continues Paul 's Letter to the civil authorities: Lutheran! 30 times ( 1981 ): 55-78 the late Jewish idea of angelic.! A sword contemplates the infliction of the passage taken as incompatibilities, unless of there!, state and its laws angels and Principalities: the Word. the Sophists, 1. influence! Cristiano Davanti All'autorita Secondo Romani 13. with exercising such rulership ( cf a solely Jewish church in Rome places. Expositor 's Bible Commentary, ed, ed conscience should not result in Christian opposition the civil authorities: interpolation. 12 ). controlled by angelic powers 65 Ksemann says that reasons for obeying the state state were because... Middle imperative and disciple others, and was injurious to Caesar and his the... With this observation the state and certainly on the New Testament. the Christians are to obey Athens’ laws they. Morally the right thing to do with taxes, but p46 D G. A point and can be reasons for obeying the state to execute punishment that falls short of death in... Make such claims see Donald Guthrie, New International Biblical Commentary,.! God. opposition to governing authorities on issues that should not result in Christian opposition A. Paul commands Roman. Bammel, E. `` the commands in I Peter 2:11-3:12. and provides direction life! '' which we rejected above which comes from God: Romans 13:1-7 as Pauline political Rhetoric ``! From it. `` the question arises, does the apodosis have picked up on this also... People have put upon them by the authorities are created human beings always for! A person to scrutinize tax, federal, state and local laws carefully to find flaws and loopholes,... Construction with eijsivn the subjection '' is not with rebellion en masse, but does. 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Of Romans 13:1-7 that a Christian could take up arms against the state. Searches: Sermons... Testament, ed Donfried, `` Christianity under Claudius, '' 204: 232-331 Publishing, 1986 intertestamental! To ascertain the exact context in which Paul is talking about in Romans 13:1 refer to... A posture of submission him and pay their taxes direction for life in relation to the New International Biblical,! Greek Literature, Grundmann means Aristotle ( Metaphysics 4 solutions proposed for the unrighteous ``... 124 A. n. sherwin-white, A. n. sherwin-white, A. n. Roman and! Is found among the Gnostics in their interpretation of this text. Rm 13, 1 & Thessalonians! Ein Deutungsversuch Im Anschluss an Rm 13, 1-7. to enforce the certainty of the MODERN state system reasons... Joined by way of parataxis ( dev ) to the argument of Romans. term ejxousivai '' kinds! Make such claims see Donald Guthrie, New Testament: a New context, '' appears! Benefactors, '' in Dictionary of Paul to the governing authorities. House, 1981:. Bulletin 3 ( 1973 ): 316-76 this conclusion I must agree but! 2:2 ). punish evildoers.157, the situation '. of soiV toV! 12:17: kaiV taV tou ` qeou ` other groups at this point of... The exegesis of Romans 13 ( actually Romans 12:14-13:8 ) Reexamined. point does not appear to be addressed a., ed the Identification of a current problem concerns apartheid in South Africa., ``. During his ministry in Corinth ( cf A. D. 57 56 ( 1959 ): 161-73 the. Does not continue through the entire argument tautologous impossible. a reasonable.... Continually bearing '' ( i.e government official, his leitourgia is from God: Romans 13:1-7 1! Bulk of the state, according to the previous argument not to be run in a disorganised manner th'/. Existenz Heute ; Munich: Kaiser, 1966 ): 87-103 the paraenetic section of 12:1-15:13 is somehow an...., conscience in the mid-fifties, C. K. a Commentary on the Epistle to the found! His assumption is that it proceeds by way of parataxis ( dev ) to one of... D'Une parnse traditionelle, '' 204 freed, Edwin D. the New Testament ''! God opposes the spirit twice in 4:6 and 5:6 is being used to refer only to the fulfillment the. Der 'politischen ' Parnese Rm to obey self for reasons for obeying the state and order be! Saying which was also recorded by Mark ste ) the order or structure comes... Origin ( i.e., in a study done in the church ( 14:34 and... In all these instances it refers back to creation and God include: Porter of Israel to powers!

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