Hanna GD, 1966. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Rockweed and periwinkle harvests: Conflict or complement. 2009b; With Atlantic seaweeds used as packing for long distance transport of bait worms and shellfish/fish, With shipments of bait from Atlantic to Pacific for anglers, Planktonic larvae are a highly dispersive stage in life history, Adult hitchikers in rockweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) used for packing of bait worms or shellfish, Hitchikers in rockweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) used for packing of bait worms or shellfish, Highly adaptable to different environments, Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food, Modification of natural benthic communities, Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked). On the occurrence of Littorina litorea on the coast of Nova Scotia. Littorina plena and Littorina scutulata grow to only 18-19 mm high, have mainly dark or black shells, often with a checkered pattern, with a black or purple-black operculum and a dark or black inner edge on the aperture, and have a narrower profile than Littorina littorea. Byers. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Lyell (1835) applied the name L. littorea to fossil specimens of L. littorea, and most subsequent authors applied this name to fossil and modern representatives of L. littorea with the same concept of the species as we use today. Journal of Mollucan Studies, 45:172-177. Resistance of larvae of common species of White Sea invertebrates to extreme changes in salinity. The Biologist, 53:160-162. Littorina littorea feeds on diatoms, Enteromorpha, Ulva and Porphyra. http://www.marine.ie, Marine Sacs Project UK, 2009. L. littorea is invasive in North America with a current range from Red Bay, Labrador, to Lewes, Delaware (Blakeslee et al., 2008; Brawley et al., 2009). Reproduction . distribution of epibionts and their effects on the marine snail littorina littorea in northern new england by laura chelynne page b.s., wheaton college, il, 2003 USA, San Francisco Estuary Partnership, 2009. Since its arrival in North America, Littorina littorea has become the most abundant shallow-water herbivorous snail from Nova Scotia to Long Island Sound (Bertness 1984). Further details and excellent illustrations are given by Fretter and Graham (1962, Chapter 2) and by Reid (1996, see p. 7, 9, 33, 100-105; reproductive details are taxonomically important: males have a penis with 10-42 mamilliform glands, and females have an oviduct that is composed of three loops, two of the albumen gland followed by a capsule gland). Cadmium accumulation, distribution and metabolism in the gastropod Littorina littorea: the role of metal-binding proteins - Volume 67 Issue 3 - W. J. Langston, Mingjiang Zhou We think this is the likeliest explanation for the large populations (thousands of snails) found at Seal Beach in Southern California, at Dumbarton Point and possibly other sites in San Francisco Bay, and at Vancouver in British Columbia. Egg capsules are shed directly into the sea. Buschbaum C; Buschbaum G; Schrey I; Thieltges DW, 2007. It is also tolerant of brackish water. We characterized three newly discovered populations of an introduced gastropod, Littorina littorea (Linné, 1758), in California, USA, comparing them to potential source populations in native Europe and the North American East Coast, where the snail is also introduced. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(20):8239-8244. http://www.pnas.org/. Littorina saxatilis occurs from the upper eulittoral zone down to the littoral fringe of the intertidal and is typically found in crevices of bedrock, empty barnacle shells and under stones. Bequaert JC, 1943. Bulletin of the Essex Institute, 12:171-176. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 292:41-50. Littorina. It has greatly altered New England intertidal communities by allowing slower growing algae to dominate over the faster growing algal species that it prefers (Lubchenco 1978). Competitive displacement of native mud snails by introduced periwinkles in the New England intertidal zone. Dataset Records; Danish benthic marine monitoring data … http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=400&fr=1&sts=sss&lang=EN, Marine Life Information Network for Britain & Ireland (MarLIN) Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. A comparative study of the freezing tolerances of the marine snails Littorina littorea (L.) and Nassarius obsoletus (Say). 123-130. 2001). In sheltered conditions they can also be found in sandy or muddy habitats such as estuaries and mud-flats. T These datasets may overlap. Clarke AP; Mill PJ; Grahame J, 2000. Ellis JC; Shulman MJ; Wood M; Witman JD; Lozyniak S, 2007. Ganong WF, 1887. J Anim Ecol 337 (1964): 413-432. In: Plant-Animal Interactions in the Marine Benthos [ed. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 351:877-895. Reid DG; Rumbak E; Thomas RH, 1996. In: Occasonial Papers of the California Academy of Sciences. L. littorea reaches intertidal abundances of hundreds to thousands of animals/m2 on rocky shores, cobbled beaches, mudflats and Spartina marshes (e.g., Lubchenco, 1978; Bertness, 1984; Buschbaum, 2000; Carlson et al., 2006; Tyrell et al., 2008). A report for the U.S. Montreal: Government of Prince Edward Island. CAB Abstracts Data Mining., CABI, Undated. Establishment failure in biological invasions: a case history of Littorina littorea in California, USA. The importing of baitworms from Maine appears to have started in the San Francisco Bay area in the 1960s, and in southern California possibly as early as the 1950s. The common periwinkle (L. littorea) is one of the most abundant marine gastropods on the North Atlantic coast. For a full review of littorinids in general, and a comprehensive discussion of past and current views on separating Littorina saxatilis into sub-species see Reid (1996). 1984. Chapman JW; Carlton JT; Bellinger MR; Blakeslee AMH, 2007. by Burt, M. D. B. Recent archeological finds match very well with the historical records of the Norse exploration and settlements. Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA: Sinauer Associates, Inc, 445-468. Littorina littorea collected at Foster City, San Francisco Bay. The tropical species belong in other genera of the same family L. littorea occurs abundantly in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats from the White Sea (Russia) to southern Portugal in the eastern Atlantic; this is its native range (Hawkins et al., 1992; Reid, 1996; Barroso et al., 2007). The mesogastropod Littorina littorea (Linné, 1758) in Iceland: paleobiology and migration. 1-5. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas. conica Harmer, ... [The shell guide: shells from the world oceans, shape, distribution and systematics]. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 33-60. California: Anaheim Bay [first collected in 2002]: 30-40 snails collected in Nov 2002; almost 2,300 counted in May 2004; 1,828 removed in August 2004. Maryland records of the gastropod, Littorina littorea, with a discussion of factors controlling its southern distribution. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below. Davenport J; Davenport JL, 2007. Resistance of larvae of common species of White Sea invertebrates to extreme changes in salinity. The Ray Society, Andover, Hampshire, England. Life between tide-marks in North America. Wares JP; Cunningham CW, 2001. Transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science, 1:88-90. Littorina littorea in California (San Francisco and Trinity Bays). Here, we examined the tolerance of Littorina littorea, L. obtusata, and L. saxatilis marine snails for exposure to extreme temperatures. In the Pacific, L. squalida, which is considered to be L. littorea’s sister species (Reid, 1996), has a similar shell shape, but L. littorea’s shell is a little narrower and less incised. Blakeslee AMH; Byers JE, 2008. It has conspicuous shoulders where one whorl attaches to the preceding one (unlike in Littorina littorea), strong spiral ridges on the shell surface, and is commonly yellow, or yellow on the lowest whorl and gray or brown on the upper ones, with occasional white or dark brown shells. The North Atlantic gastropod Littorina littorea exhibits a characteristic “intertidal” distribution: the snail is abundant in the littoral zone but scarce in the shallow subtidal and the relatively few subtidal individuals are larger (in shell size) on average than those in the intertidal zone. Rózycki O, 1991. Revised September 2011. http://www.exoticsguide.org, http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=400&fr=1&sts=sss&lang=EN, http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/Littorinalittorea.htm, British Columbia: Vancouver [first collected in 2010]: Over 350 collected. The name Littorina littorea was in common use among scientists by the 1830s-1840s, but the species was originally described by Linnaeus (1758) as Turbo littoreus. Its range has slowly spread south, displacing some other small snails. How to use genetic data to distinguish between natural and human-mediated introduction of Littorina littorea to North America. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Ecology 65(2): 370-381. Another possibility is transport in the Ascophyllum nodosum used to pack shipments of live lobsters from New England, though the relatively small amount of such seaweed that could end up in Pacific coastal waters suggests that this is a much less likely mechanism. 561-580. Washington: Deception Pass [first collected in 1937]: 12 live and 4 dead collected in 1937, 6 live and 2 dead collected in 1949. The North Atlantic gastropod Littorina littorea exhibits a characteristic “intertidal” distribution: the snail is abundant in the littoral zone but scarce in the shallow subtidal and the relatively few subtidal individuals are larger (in shell size) on average than those in the intertidal zone. Reconstructing past biological invasions: niche shifts in response to invasive predators and competitors. Anon, 2007. Shell-boring polychaetes affect gastropod shell strength and crab predation. 2007. Description; Distribution; Introductions to North America; Ecology; Habitat; Zone; Feeding; Life cycle; Growth rate; Parasites Marine Biology Research, 3:168-174. In favorable habitats, it reaches densities of up to 200-800 individuals per square meter. Physical factors mediate effects of grazing by a non-indigenous snail species on saltmarsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in New England marshes. Localised, accidental introductions continue, but an invasive population remains absent, Southernmost distribution in NW Atlantic found at Lewes, DL, One living individual found in attached Fucus spiralis, Occasional introduction but not established, Few individuals found in Puget Sound; invasive population not established and no longer present, See text for discussion of subfossils in North America that predate this period; these subfossils have led to propose that there was also a native population, Spot introductions that appear too small to form invasive populations; recent introductions in San Francisco Bay are part of an active eradication effort, Planktonic dispersal led to rapid and well-chronicled spread from Nova Scotia along the Atlantic shore of New Brunswick to Maine and southward to New Jersey by end of the nineteenth century, 10-40 tolerated, both values in psu. 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