protect indigenous knowledge arises from the fact that drug companies make financial gains as well as exploit the medicinal properties in plants used by indigenous traditional people to treat various illnesses such as cancer and yet there is no recognition given. The inhabitants are also deploying thinning, coppicing and other farm management indigenous practices on the fields. non-agroforestry practices (Figure 8). Box 3072, Mekelle, Ethiopia Received 31 August 2010; received in revised form 9 June 2011; accepted 20 June 2011 INTRODUCTION Ethiopia is … St. John's wort. indigenous or non indigenous species that can heavily colonize a particular habitat.2 Alien species are non-native or exotic organisms that occur outside their adaptive ranges and dispersal ranges.3,4 IAS are all categories of living organisms (plants, mammals and insects) which comprise the most common types in terrestrial environments.4 Peoples in differe nt zones/location with different religious, linguistic and cultural backgrounds have their own specific knowledge about use of plants which in part has gradually entered wide circulation in the country. When they do get cut down, they must always be replaced. Agroforestry is a proven model of integrated sustainable land use system which can enhance agricultural productivity and production in a low input and in an ecological and economically feasible way in the effort of enhancing food security sustainably [4] . Some, however, also preferred the field crops production since they considered harvesting a reasonable amount of produce in a specific period of time as an advantage (Figure 3). are among to mention (Table 1). The main Indigenous Plants of Ethiopia. It is also worthy to note that these figures doesn’t include the amount of carbon which will be stored in the roots below the ground that could amount 50% - 75% of the total stored on the other parts of the tree above the ground. The cow dung from the livestock population, once dry, serves as source of household energy since it will be used as fuel for cooking and heating activities of the household. The community does not allow trees to be cut until they have reached maturity. This all can prove as agroforestry practices to play a pivotal role in offering ecosystem services which sustain the wellbeing of humans. Indigenous and introduced crops are managed under traditional farming in home gardens and fields distributed in the varied agroecosystems. Once established, agroforestry practices also need less intensive farm management activities and this has favored the local communities to have more time to perform other off-farm income generation activities. The poster tries to mark up the "hotspots" of Ethiopia's agrobiodiversity across landscapes and farming systems. Alemu, M.M. These Today, Abraham has been weaving for four years, and the profits he has generated have gone toward supporting his young son. Open Access Library Journal This multi-purpose root crop is … It has also enabled the communities to be empowered economically as they can always find to be cashed and fulfill household needs. Vegetables such as capsicum, cabbage and sweet potatoes are also widely practiced as they form the major source of food in the community. Apart from this, agroforestry practices are also known to increase the biodiversity resource potentials. Namely, these are Boswellia sacra, Boswellia frereana, Boswellia serrata, and Boswellia papyrifera. 2012.pdf Content available from Kamal C. Semwal: Book chepter Biodiversity Status in Ethiopia and Challenges.pdf Frankincense is a moderate growing flowering plant native to the tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Caraway, carcade, cardamom, chat, coriander, incense, myrrh, and red pepper are common. 5. Indigenous Agroforestry Practices in Southern Ethiopia: The Case of Lante, Arba Minch Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia) is a major centre of plant diversity and endemism (Davis et al. Only 500 Walia Ibex still exist in the Semien Mountains of Ethiopia, both due to poaching … are native plant examples of direct dyes. arabiensis, an important malaria vector in Ethiopia. The major useful plant categories Caraway, carcade, cardamom, chat, coriander, incense, myrrh, and red pepper are common. Thus, many rural people of Ethiopia usually feed on wild edible plants for survival during food shortages [18]. Copyright © 2006-2015 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All rights reserved. Intercropping Agroforestry Practices, This practice is mainly carried out on farmlands. It is a growing environmental and economic threat to the county. In 1790, the first European, James Bruce of Scotland, documented only 18 plants in his Natural History of Ethiopia. Monkey kola (red) C. lateritia 8. Indigenous Agroforestry Practices in Southern Ethiopia: The Case of Lante, Arba Minch Coffee Arabica an important cash crop of the area is also grown under the shade of trees. As many of the indigenous communities are highly reliant on indigenous medicines extracted from trees, the practices have played and are playing a significant role in maintaining the health of communities in a productive way. ed. Flora of Ethiopia and … Farmers' Indigenous knowledge: Cultivation, Utilization and classification, of Enset in North Omo (Ethiopia) Kefale Alemu Introduction Enset (Ensete ventricosum) is a perennial herbaceous root crop with long broad leaves and bulky pseudostem. Farmers are intercropping trees with onions, capsicum, cabbage and sweet potatoes (Figure 4 and Figure 5). The leaf fall which will stay on the surface also serves to lower down the devastating effects of rainfall drop splash and erosion. Lante is also bordering with Lake Abaya which has a great contribution towards its potential for agroforestry and other agricultural activities [12] [13] (Figure 1). Farmers' Indigenous knowledge: Cultivation, Utilization and classification, of Enset in North Omo (Ethiopia) Kefale Alemu Introduction Enset (Ensete ventricosum) is a perennial herbaceous root crop with long broad leaves and bulky pseudostem. Before the project, she noticed how bare the land was. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0). The indigenous trees of Ethiopia by Friedrich Von Breitenbach, 1963, Ethiopian Forestry Association edition, in English - 2nd, rev. Agro ecologically 4 kebeles are highlands, 15 kebeles at mid altitude and the rest 10 are found in the low land zone with a rainfall amount of 800 mm - 1200 mm per annum. It requires the integrated approach of sustainable land use models in order to lift up the living standards of the wider agriculture based portion of the world population. The benefits of agroforestry practices in terms of drought resistance was also rated high as trees can tolerate short and longer term water stress while providing all the environmental, nutritional and economic benefits to the practitioners and the locality (Figure 7, Figure 8). I. Giant lobelia, endemic. 2003). SynsepalumMagic plant 9. Ethiopia is one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. 3.2 The Need for Transferring Useful Indigenous Knowledge and Practices in Ethiopia (Wossenu Yimam, Addis Ababa University) Ethiopia is very rich in different indigenous knowledge systems in such areas as architecture, medicine, agriculture and cottage industry. It is native to southern Ethiopia. PDF | There are 428 endemic and near endemic woody taxa in Ethiopia and Eritrea, of which 107 are trees and 321 are shrubs. Berta and Gumuz inhabited areas in the BGRS has never been studied. Fruits like Mango, Papaya, Lemon, False banana (‘Enset’), Orange, Avocado and Banana are also serving as sources of supplementary food and income generation opportunities. Figure 2. Intercropping agroforestry practices (maize, banana, mango, vegies, etc.). Country strategic opportunities programme, South-south and triangular cooperation (SSTC), Near East, North Africa, Europe and Central Asia, Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme, China-IFAD South-South and Triangular Cooperation Facility, Climate and Commodity Hedging to Enable Transformation, Facility for Refugees, Migrants, Forced Displacement and Rural Stability, Insurance for Rural Resilience and Economic Development, International Aid Transparency Initiative, National Designated Authorities partnership platform, Platform for Agricultural Risk Management, Smallholder and Agri-SME Finance and Investment Network, Working Group on the Transition Framework, Working group on the Performance-based Allocation System, Global Forum on Remittances, Investment and Development. In line with this, planting of trees in crop lands is also known to reduce insect pest and disease infestation. The benefits of agroforestry practices also can have an economic dimension since it helps to maximize agricultural production by reducing soil erosion, water and organic matter losses. Desta, B., 1994. The ecological benefit which sustained the survival of life forms on the surface of the earth is also maintained as a result of the services obtained from ecosystems [1] . The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation [9] had defined agroforestry as “a collective name for land-use systems and technologies where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc.) Livestock related agroforestry practices in Lante. The lakes in the Great Rift Valley region abound with numerous species of birds, and wild animals are … indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants in Ethiopia is unevenly distributed among each community members. Box 2035, Mekelle, Ethiopia b Mekelle University, Department of Biology, P.O. 4.3. Ethiopia boasts an extremely diverse flora including more than 1,000 species of woody plants (125 of which are endemic) and 736 types of grass. The indigenous knowledge and practices of agroforestry, however, are being eroded as a result of the increased need of the ever increasing human population. It is a widely practiced activity in the region and that has helped the region to remain green while the rest of the country’s woody vegetation is being degraded substantially. The trees are believed to create conducive microclimate for the proper development of the undergrowth as they will be serving as windbreak and reducing the heat effects of the tropics overhead sun. Agroforestry practices have also contributed a lot in the protection of watershed services and maximize the production systems [3] . Read more about IFAD and land | Indigenous Peoples | Indigenous Peoples Assistance Facility. Hygiene Abyssinica. Rappanea simensis trees. The general model of agroforestry practices considers shrubs, crops, perennials, trees, livestock, etc. Recently, Abraham's son asked if his father could cut down an older Koso tree to make him a bed. During a recent visit to Ethiopia, Global Trees Campaign staff encountered many amazing trees and identified exciting opportunities for tree conservation efforts. INTRODUCTION Ethiopia is … Edwards S, Mesfin Tadesse & Hedberg I (eds).1995. These figures do not include the carbon stored in the roots, which may be equal to 50 to 75 per cent of the carbon stored above ground. Typical home garden agroforestry practices in Lante. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants in Ethiopia is unevenly distributed among community members. In the southern region of Ethiopia in general and Lante Kebele in particular home. Agroforestry can also be defined as a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resource management system that, through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic and environmental benefits for land users at all levels”. Agroforestry and its ornamental value in Lante. The paper identified and listed a … [24] noted that about 413 kinds of WEPs are consumed in Ethiopia. One elder when asked about the importance of agroforestry he mentioned “… it is like my savings in a bank, I can get edible items of different types whenever I need it!”. The smallholder farmers also plant Sugarcanes which is also another important source of cash for the household needs (Figure 2). Their role in livelihoods development, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation and green economy development is also vital for the development of human capital on the face of the earth. Most of the produce and marketable items are transported on the back of donkeys and donkey drawn carts. In the Chencha region of southern Ethiopia, erosion continues to be a pressing concern for the Gamo people, one of the main indigenous tribes of Ethiopia. Indigenous communities have developed knowledge of ecosystem management that has evolved through an intricate manner. Evidence shows that many of the indigenous communities and practitioners have continued on the traditional management ways and practices of natural resources. In times of rainfall and water shortage, the trees will always be able to provide edible fruits since they will be able to get moisture from the underground water. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Gindeberet district, Western Ethiopia S. Zerabruk a, G. Yirga b,⁎ a Mekelle University, Department of Chemistry, P.O. This study was held in Lante, one of the Kebeles (the smallest administration unit) of Arba Minch Zuriya district of Southern Ethiopia so as to explore the indigenous agroforestry practices along with its present contribution for food security and local economic development. African breadfruit Treculia africana Moraceae W, C, E 2. The perceptions survey of the agroforestry practitioner local communities indicated that the income generated from agroforestry practices is by far higher than other. 2. The wealth of knowledge from the indigenous agroforestry practitioners provides the level and depth knowledge that has developed over centuries among the indigenous people. addis ababa university school of graduate studies biology department an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in seru wereda , arsi zone of oromia region, ethiopia Open Access Library Journal Vol.03 No.12(2016), Article ID:73000,12 pages 10.4236/oalib.1103278. In the region of the former capital of Ethiopia, Ankober, rural communities live in hamlets of enclosed farms. The agroforestry activities of the communities have enabled to maintain the greenery of the region along with its magnificent contribution towards ecological values, food security and local economic benefits. Livestock production forms the major part of the livelihoods of the rural communities. The Wolaita Zone is one of these where such practice is very common and the associated indigenous knowledge has not been studied and documented well. In this practice the nitrogen fixing trees will also play in nutrient recycling and easing the production in an environment friendly and cost effective way. The mango trees with their widespread canopy will reduce wind speed and there will also be less competition for nutrients as these plants have a different rooting system which will let them use soil nutrients and water from the different strata of the soil profile. The Government of Canada Agriculture and Agro-food Agency [11] mentioned as agroforestry practices are essential resources to combat climate because of their role in sequestering carbon and other greenhouse gases. Keywords – Biodiversity, Condiments, Dawuro, Home Garden, Indigenous Knowledge, Loma and Gena Bosa Districts, Spices. gardens for cultivation of multipurpose plants and finding markets for potential home garden products needs to be followed up. Maize another important staple crop of the area is also cultivated in this system. Figure 8. Monkey kola (yellow) 6. First, such research contributes to our scientific knowledge of the range and variety of plants in Ethiopia. Eighty percent of the Ethiopian people depend on traditional medicine for their health care (Dawit and Ahadu, 1993), and more than 95% of traditional medicinal preparations in Ethiopia are made from plant origin (Dawit, 1986)…Read more. Open Access Library Journal, 3: e3278. Lante being one of the Kebeles located in the lowland areas has a total population of about 7479 (female 3844). The temperature also ranges from 16˚C - 37˚C. Farming activities such as ploughing and transport are being accomplished by making use of draft animals. Through organic matter development and maintenance, the practices can increase microbial activities which can help nutrient recycling which can increase the fertility of soil under agricultural production. Planting these indigenous tree species have shown her the importance of taking care of the environment. Based on the coping mechanism potentials of agroforestry and modern agriculture, the lion’s share of the respondents showed their preference to continue agroforestry practices than field crops production. Agroforestry systems and practices are providing various ecosystem services and environmental benefits that have local and regional importance [2] . In addition to this, the issue of agroforestry has to be considered as part of the country’s biodiversity conservation and other land management strategies. In some areas, the mountains are covered with shrubs such as pyracantha, jasmine, poinsettia, and a varied assortment of evergreens. Biodiversity Status in Ethiopia and Challenges - - - Husen et al. There are 5 endemic genera (marked red) but no endemic families. Pasture and forage plant diversity Ethiopia boasts Africa’s only indigenous rose species – the Rosa abyssinica; an evergreen Rosaceae with white & creamy fragrant flowers and orange climbing hips, … The agroforestry project has greatly contributed to increasing the quantity of their harvest. These benefits will have an impact and environmental benefits contribution at the farm scale, local and regional levels. The indigenous trees of Ethiopia by Friedrich Von Breitenbach, 1963, Ethiopian Forestry Association edition, in English - 2nd, rev. The References. The Government of Ethiopia Climate Resilient Green Economy Strategy also outlines the integration of agroforestry systems in to forage legumes, croplands, expansion of green energy sources, forest and biodiversity conservation are believed to ensure the sustained development of the indigenous agroforestry practices of the country. Cattle production is the major livestock activity. This is mainly because of the fact that, during that regime each individual household was allowed to own a very small area of land at their backyard for their private use as a result of the communalism of resources ideology that was strategized at that time. Abraham Adamu, 24, is a skilled weaver in the Chencha region. They do have also an important role in reducing acidification and salinization related soil toxicities. Agroforestry has played and is still playing a key role in the conservation and management of land resources in a sustainable way. The project has given her a greater understanding of the value of the trees in fertilizing the soil and increasing crop yields. Hence, agroforestry systems can be categorized as silvopastoral (forestry with domestic animals), agrisilvicultural (growing crops and trees) and agrosilvopastoral (crops, forestry and animals). 3.2 The Need for Transferring Useful Indigenous Knowledge and Practices in Ethiopia (Wossenu Yimam, Addis Ababa University) Ethiopia is very rich in different indigenous knowledge systems in such areas as architecture, medicine, agriculture and cottage industry. His father taught him how to weave and secured all of the necessary equipment for him to begin his own business. This multi-purpose root crop is … Nitrogen fixing trees can also increase agricultural production and thereof reduced cost for agricultural inputs [10] . Thus, agroforestry has played to cope up with disaster by building the resilience of the community in times of drought and rain failure. 3377). Agroforestry has been practiced for centuries in different parts of the world by making use of indigenous technical knowledge. The region is known for its diverse and immense biodiversity resources that contributed for healthy ecosystem functions, sustainable livelihoods development and enhanced food security status of the region [5] . Passing this rule down to his son, Abraham told him that he could only cut down the tree if he planted ten Koso trees first and ensure they had all taken root. Whilst free grazing is the widely practiced activity farmers also use cut and carry system in order to feed the animals at homesteads (Figure 6). Ground truthing of this practice. Lulekal et al. The study was conducted to assess and explain indigenous knowledge and factors related to practice of forest conservation among forest dependent community in the three kebeles in Dawuro Zone, Tocha District. The average proportion of the food insecure world population has decreased from 37% to 18%, and the availability of food has enhanced in the developing world. The tuberous roots are harvested and cooked for a … revealed as the intercropping activities have a tangible impact in maintaining soil organic matter, reduced evaporation from the soil surface as a result of the leaf fall mulch, shelter for shade loving plants such as coffee and also serves as shade for humans whenever working in the farm. There are two cropping seasons, namely, Belg (short rainy season from March to May), Meher (main rainy season of June to September). Thus, since the case of Lante is a good role model for sustainable agroforestry development, sharing the indigenous agroforestry experience with the rest of the country could have a great impact in building green economy at grassroots levels. The Gamo people live in the highland area and primarily practice mixed agriculture and weaving. With growing momentum in the country for botanic garden development, the Global Trees Campaign is working with partners in Ethiopia to develop projects to save the country’s threatened trees from extinction. The different aspects of agroforestry such as the types of indigenous agroforestry practices, the perception towards the practices, threats, opportunities, etc. Artistic thatched roof in the Ankober region. The agroforestry practices on the other hand can also indicate the specific land resources management activities in spatial and temporal arrangements [7] [8] . Today, his son has planted seven Koso trees. Now, she understands why the cropping seasons were changing and underground water sources were diminishing. Figure 4. However, there is still a hope if advanced policy actions in the environmental governance, land tenure, investments and market linkages are placed so that agroforestry systems will continue to deliver sustainable improvements to the food security efforts of the nation.

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